OPN1MW Membrane Protein Introduction

Introduction of OPN1MW

Medium-wave-sensitive opsin 1 (OPN1MW) is a protein that in human is encoded by the OPN1MW gene. This gene also encodes for a light absorbing visual pigment of the opsin gene family. The protein is called green cone photopigment or medium-wavelength sensitive opsin. Opsins are G-protein coupled receptors with seven transmembrane domains, an N-terminal extracellular domain, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. The long-wavelength opsin gene and multiple copies of the medium-wavelength opsin gene are tandemly arrayed on the X chromosome and frequent unequal recombination and gene conversion may occur between these sequences. X chromosomes may have fusions of the medium- and long-wavelength opsin genes or may have more than one copy of these genes. Defects in this gene are the cause of deutanopic colorblindness.

Basic Information of OPN1MW
Protein Name Medium-wave-sensitive opsin 1
Gene Name OPN1MW
Organism Homo sapiens (Human)
UniProt ID P04001
Transmembrane Times 7
Length (aa) 364

Function of OPN1MW Membrane Protein

Visual pigments are the light-absorbing molecules that mediate vision. They consist of an apoprotein, opsin, covalently linked to cis-retinal. And OPN1MW is a Protein-Coding gene. The diseases associated with OPN1MW include Colorblindness, Partial, Deutan Series and Blue Cone Monochromacy. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and photoreceptor activity. And an important paralog of this gene is OPN1MW3. In summary, the function of OPN1MW includes the molecular function and biological process. The molecular function through G-protein coupled photoreceptor activity, identical protein binding, and photoreceptor activity. The biological process mediates G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, phototransduction, positive regulation of cytokinesis, protein-chromophore linkage, retinoid metabolic process, and visual perception.

Structure of OPN1MW membrane protein. Fig.1 Structure of OPN1MW membrane protein.

Application of OPN1MW Membrane Protein in Literature

  1. Buena-Atienza E., et al. De novo intrachromosomal gene conversion from OPN1MW to OPN1LW in the male germline results in Blue Cone Monochromacy. Scientific reports. 2016, 6: 28253. PubMed ID: 27339364.

    This article assessed twelve different OPN1LW/MW exon 3 haplotypes by semi-quantitative minigene splicing assay, and they could establish intrachromosomal gene conversion in the male germline as the underlying mechanism. The gene conversion in the OPN1LW/OPN1MW genes has been postulated, and they are first to demonstrate a de novo gene conversion within the lineage of a pedigree.

  2. Patterson E.J., et al. Cone Photoreceptor Structure in Patients With X-Linked Cone Dysfunction and Red-Green Color Vision Deficiency. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2016, 57(8): 3853-63. PubMed ID: 27447086.

    This article showed that mutation in OPN1MW underlie the cone dysfunction in all of the subjects tested, the color vision defect can be caused either by the same mutation or a gene rearrangement at the same locus.

  3. Carroll J., et al. The effect of cone opsin mutations on retinal structure and the integrity of the photoreceptor mosaic. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2012, 53(13): 8006-15. PubMed ID: 23139274

    This article evaluated the retinal structure and photoreceptor mosaic integrity in subjects with OPN1LW and OPN1MW mutations and found the photoreceptor phenotype associated with OPN1LW and OPN1MW mutations is highly variable.

  4. Gardner J.C., et al. A novel missense mutation in both OPN1LW and OPN1MW cone opsin genes causes X-linked cone dystrophy (XLCOD5). Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 2012, 723: 595-601. PubMed ID: 22183383

    This article showed subsequent candidate gene screening identified the causative and mutation as a novel missense substitution in both OPN1LW and OPN1MW cone opsin genes. And they also investigated the functional consequences of this mutation.

  5. Hofmann L., et al. Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Human Green Opsin Reveals a Conserved Pro-Pro Motif in Extracellular Loop 2 of Monostable Visual G Protein-Coupled Receptors. Biochemistry. 2017, 56(17): 2338-48. PubMed ID: 28402104.

    The author of this group suggested that OPN1MW exhibits a conserved Pro-Pro motif in extracellular loop 2 as observed in monostable visual G-protein-coupled receptors. Comparison of deuterium uptake between inactive and active states of OPN1MW suggests a reduced solvent accessibility of the extracellular N-terminal region and an increased accessibility of the chromophore binding site.

OPN1MW Preparation Options

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