Opsin-3, also known as encephalopsin or panopsin, is a protein that is encoded by the OPN3 gene in humans. Any changes of this gene will bring about multiple transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms, which will in further cause diseases affecting the vision function of human's eyes.
|Basic Information of OPN3|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Opsins are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. Besides the visual opsins, mammals possess several photoreceptive non-visual opsins that are widely existed in tissues outside the eye. The OPN3 gene has a high expression in brain and testis, while it is lowly expressed in some tissues/organs, including liver, placenta, heart, lung, skeletal muscle, kidney, and pancreas. The gene is also expressed in the skin, as well as in the retina. The protein has the canonical features of a photoreceptive opsin protein.
Fig.1 Opsin-3 affects blue light-induced opsin3-mediated MITF activation. (Subba, 2018)
Authors in this study suggest that the combination of OPN3 and the multimeric tyrosinase/tyrosinase-related protein appears as new therapeutic targets for regulating melanogenesis and OPN3 is also important to protect dark skins against blue light in physiological conditions/pigmentary disorders.
This article suggests that Opn3 might be the photoreceptors in various tissues. Moreover, these Opn3s, particularly the mosquito homolog, could provide a promising optogenetic tool for regulating cAMP-related G protein-coupled receptor signaling.
This study suggests that encephalopsin is expressed at the protein level in different brain areas of the mouse. It proves that encephalopsin plays a role in non-visual photic processes.
Authors in this study used in situ hybridization and somatic cell hybrids to assign panopsin (OPN3) to human chromosome band 1q43.
This article suggests that vertebrate Opn3s forms blue-sensitive G protein-coupled pigments. It also shows that combination, cAMP-dependent luciferase reporter assay and chimeric opsins possessing the third intracellular loop of jellyfish opsin, is an efficient approach to estimate absorption spectra of opsins with unknown signaling cascades or those processes whose absorption spectra are difficult to obtain.
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