Parathyroid hormone receptors are receptors that bind parathyroid hormone. The parathyroid hormone peptide subfamily includes the endocrine-acting parathyroid hormone (PTH), PTH-related peptide (PTHrP), and the tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39). PTH is highly expressed in parathyroid gland and can be detected in hypothalamus, pituitary, and thymus. It is an important regulator of body calcium homeostasis. PTHrP is widely expressed in a wide spectrum of tissues and the main function of this hormone is the regulation of chondrocyte growth and differentiation in the growth plates of developing long bone. TIP39 is mainly synthesized in two brain regions, the subparafascicular area of the thalamus and the medial paralemniscal nucleus of the pons. It has been reported to modulate stress responses and body temperature.
There are two known parathyroid hormone receptors in mammals: PTH1R and PTH2R. The PTH1R mediates the biologic actions by binding to PTH and PTHrP. It is expressed in bone and kidney cells, as well as in a number of developing tissues. Ligands of PTH1R are of considerable interest because they could have utility toward several bone- and calcium-related diseases, including osteoporosis and hypoparathyroidism. The PTH2R binds the TIP39, likely functioning in the neuroendocrine system and is as well required for spermatogenesis.
Here, we give an introduction to the characteristics of these two human parathyroid hormone receptors, covering the protein structure, signaling pathways, functions, pharmacological applications, recent research advances, etc. Please click the links below for more detailed information.
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