Creative Biolabs provides global customers with highly specific polyglycylation antibody based on our excellent High-Affi™ technology. Our antibodies recognize not only most forms of polyglycylated tubulin (α- and β-tubulin) but also other polyglycylated proteins containing at least 3 glycine residues.
Polyglycylation is a form of post-translational modification which occurs through the addition of a polyglycine peptide to the gamma-carboxyl group of glutamate residues near the carboxyl-terminal region of tubulin. The number of glycine residues that add onto the γ-COOH groups of specific glutamate residues can be up to 34. Similar with polyglutamylation, polyglycylation was also highly conserved over evolution and discovered on tubulin. While polyglutamylation was found on many different types of microtubules (MTs), polyglycylation is particularly prominent in cilia and flagella ranging from the single cell to humans. Polyglycylation distribution on β-tubulin of Paramecium is in several clustered Es, including E437, E438, E439, and E441.
As the modification enzymes for polyglycylation were unknown, the functional experiments on tubulin polyglycylation were difficult to perform. Fortunately, two monoclonal antibodies, AXO 49 and TAP 952, probes with polyglycylated carboxy-terminal peptides from Paramecium axonemal tubulin, are found to recognize different tubulin polyglycylations. AXO 49 recognizes polyglycylated tubulin, while TAP 952 only recognizes the C-terminus of monoglycylated alpha and beta-tubulins. AXO 49 and TAP 952 are used either for tubulin functional studies or health-related research since they were produced.
The polyglycylated-specific antibodies inhibited the motility of reactivated sea urchin spermatozoa, suggesting that polyglycylation plays functions in the regulation of ciliary dynein. Combined utilization of antibodies with in vivo mutagenesis found that lacking all polyglycylation sites on alpha-tubulin has the normal phenotype, whereas similar site mutations on beta-tubulin have site-specific effects, influencing cell motility and cytokinesis, or resulting in cell death. Meanwhile, the essential function of polyglycylation of beta-tubulin can be transferred to alpha-tubulin, indicating the total amount of polyglycylation on both alpha- and beta-tubulin is essential for survival. As for regulating microtubules (MTs) by post-translational modifications, polyglycylation can interact with other modifications, including acetylation, tyrosination, polyglutamylation, palmitoylation, and phosphorylation, which are essential for the formation and maintenance of the polarized morphology of neurons and mediated neurodegenerative diseases.
Antibodies are extensively used tools to study polyglycylation. Creative Biolabs has years of experience in the field of antibody development. With our leading and proven technology, we will provide our customers with the best products and the guaranteed services.
In addition to the polyglycylation-specific antibody, Creative Biolabs also provides a comprehensive list of PTM-specific antibody production services of your choice.