Creative Biolabs provides global customers with highly protein-specific prenylated antibody based on our excellent High-Affi™ technology. It includes farnesylation and geranylgeranylation. Prenylated C-terminus peptide was conjugated to Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH), and purified by affinity chromatography. These antibodies only target protein modified by prenyl, but do not recognize free proteins.
Prenylation (also known as isoprenylation or lipidation) is one of the common post-translational protein modifications, which extensively exists from prokaryote to eukaryote through an irreversible covalent process that adds hydrophobic molecules to target protein. Generally, protein prenylation refers to farnesylation or geranylgeranylation generated by enzymes.
Farnesyltransferase (FTase) and geranylgeranyltransferase type 1 (GGTase-I) catalyze the attachment of a single farnesyl (15 carbon) or geranylgeranyl (20 carbon) isoprenoid group, respectively, to a cysteine residue of C-terminal consensus sequence named “CaaX box” where “C” is prenylated cysteine, “a” represents an aliphatic amino acid, and the “X” residue is determined by the type of isoprenoid attached to the protein. Farnesyltransferase recognizes CaaX boxes where X = M, S, Q, A, or C, whereas geranylgeranyltransferase I recognizes CaaX boxes with X = L or E. Furthermore, Rab proteins can be added two geranylgeranyl groups to its C-terminus two cysteine residues in sequences such as CXC or CCXX by geranylgeranyltransferase type 2 (GGTase-II or Rab geranylgeranyltransferase).
Since discovered in 1978, prenylation has been studied extensively due to its various aspects of cellular physiology and pathology processes by increasing the hydrophobicity of the target protein for efficient anchoring into plasma membranes and/or organellar membranes. These target proteins include the small GTPases in the Ras, Rho, and Rab families, heterotrimeric G proteins, and nuclear lamin proteins. Functions of prenylation are involved in facilitating subcellular localization, promoting protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions. However, the dysregulation of prenylation drives to many severe human diseases such as cancer, cardiac effects, neurodegenerative disorders, retinitis pigmentosa, and premature aging syndromes.
Fig. 1 Structures of farnesylation and geranylgeranylation
Fig. 2 Three-step prenylation processing of proteins. (Palsuledesai C C and Distefano M D. 2015)
Antibodies were extensively used to study the prenylation of proteins under both physiological and pathological conditions. Creative Biolabs has years of experience in developing antibodies of post-translational modification. The antibodies provided by Creative Biolabs are designed elaborately by our professional scientists. We offer premade products and customized services with 100% guarantee.
In addition to the prenylation-specific antibody, Creative Biolabs also provides a comprehensive list of PTM-specific antibody production services of your choice.