Prostaglandins are lipid-derived autacoids that modulate many physiological systems including the CNS, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, endocrine, respiratory, and immune systems. The physiological effects of prostaglandins are mediated in part by G-protein-coupled prostanoid receptors, a family of rhodopsin-like seven transmembrane spanning receptors (GPCRs). The prostanoid receptor subfamily is comprised of eight members (DP, EP1–4, FP, IP, and TP), which are classified according to the prostanoid ligand that each binds with the greatest affinity. Different prostanoid receptor isoforms show similar ligand binding but differ in their signaling pathways, their sensitivity to agonist-induced desensitization, and their tendency towards constitutive activity. The IP, DP, EP2, and EP4 receptors are relaxant receptors that induce smooth muscle relaxation, while the TP, FP, and EP1 receptors are contractile receptors that cause smooth muscle contraction. The remaining receptor, EP3, is an inhibitory receptor. These receptors have played diverse roles in the physiologic and pathologic setting.
Different agonists and antagonists targeting each of these receptors have been developed. Here, we give an introduction of the human prostaglandin receptors regarding their signaling pathways, pharmacology, and their roles in human diseases.
To help investigate the function and structure of these membrane receptors, Creative Biolabs now utilizes different strategies and systems that allow the protein targets to be reconstituted into detergent micelles, or more native-like lipid environments, such as proteoliposomes and nanodiscs. Moreover, we employ a virus-like particle technology to collect enriched membrane proteins in lipoparticles. Additionally, polymers are used to isolate and solubilize membrane proteins from cellular membranes without the need of detergents, which maximally preserves the functional and structural integrity.
Meanwhile, our Magic™ membrane protein antibody discovery platform is also introduced to help the discovery and development of antibodies against these protein targets. We have accumulated invaluable expertise and experience in working with different clients and projects. We also present DNA immunization service for anti-membrane protein antibody development. For further information or a quote, please contact us today.