As one of the well-known service providers in biotechnology field, Creative Biolabs has years of experience in supplying a broad range of optimized platforms particularly in protein-nucleic acid interaction assays for global researchers. It attracts attention that protein-nucleic acid interaction data is developed for physiology and pathology study to illustrate the mechanisms of cell action and pathway. With the assistance of Creative Biolabs, there will be some advancement in the exploration of the equilibrium and dynamical considerations of how proteins interact with nucleic acids, what proteins are presenting in protein-nucleic acid complexes and which nucleic acid sequences are required to assemble these combinations. Creative Biolabs has a capability to provide powerful methods which generally classified into three categories, in vitro, in vivo, and in silico aspects, to detect protein-nucleic acid complexes.
Fig.1 Molecular surface of histones is shown in blue and the DNA in orange.
|In vitro||Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA)||Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)|
|Crosslinking-immunoprecipitation (CLIP)||Phage display|
|Protein microarray||DNA/RNA pull-down|
|Aptamer by SELEX||X-ray crystallography|
|Surface plasmon resonance (SPR)||Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR spectroscopy)|
|In vivo||Yeast one-hybrid (Y1H)||Yeast three-hybrid (Y3H)||Fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET)|
|In silico||Sequence-based, structure-based, or other related database and bioinformatics simulation via a computer and/or computational intelligence|
Table 1. Protein-nucleic acid interaction assay services in Creative Biolabs.
Nucleic acids and proteins are two kinds of the most important biomolecules in any cell type and living organism. Nucleic acids store the genetic information, while proteins are responsible for executing and regulating the life processes. Interactions between proteins and nucleic acids are the molecular foundations of most key biological circumstances, such as gene expression, nucleic acid transport and structural formation of chromatin, also handle intracellular connections, metabolic and developmental control. There has been an increasing consciousness of the necessity for the characterization of protein-nucleic acid interactions since the first time the association of proteins-DNA strands was observed microscopically. Thence scientists were led to construct unique experimental tools for the assays to demonstrate the binding influence of protein and DNA or RNA on the structure and function of the corresponding nucleic acid. Proteins interact with nucleic acids broadly through direct forces or indirect, involving dipolar interactions (hydrogen bond), electrostatic interactions (salt bridges), entropic effects (hydrophobic interactions) and dispersion forces (base stacking). These physical forces contribute in varying degrees to proteins’ binding in sequence-specific (tight) or non-sequence-specific (loose) manners. And sometimes interactions are transient requiring stabilization by chemical crosslinking prior to separation of protein-nucleic acid partners. The features of above interacting activities, therefore, can determine which assays or approaches are the most suitable for studying complex assembly.
Fig.2 X-ray structure of the DNA-protein complex.
Protein-nucleic acid interaction is fundamental for maintaining genome and reproducing life in central biological functions/process ranging from DNA replication and repair to RNA packaging and maturation, recombination and transcription of DNA to translation and transport of RNA. These natural and specific interactions are susceptible to monitor by a number of well-established analytical techniques from Creative Biolabs including genetic, biochemical, biophysical and immunological methods depending on the purpose of clients for further progress.
Creative Biolabs works as an experienced agent in the field of protein-nucleic acid interactions and devotes to measuring the quantitative parameters of binding as described. Clearly, our rational design strategy and time-saving analysis revolutionize currently understanding of protein-nucleic acid complexes in cell development and reveal detailed molecular mechanisms of signal pathway. Creative Biolabs is always pleased to support scientific research with a high-quality presentation of assay results and satisfy each demand from customers.