Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are a subfamily of related G protein-coupled receptors that are activated by cleavage of part of their extracellular domain. Until now, four members (PAR1-4) of the PARs family have been determined and each is expressed at significant levels throughout the body. Particularly, PARs are highly expressed in platelets, and also on endothelial cells, myocytes and neurons. Studies have shown that PARs represent a component of the innate inflammatory response and are involved in diverse physiological processes, such as neutrophil recruitment, increased perfusion, pain, and swelling. Also, it is believed that PARs can act as a first “alarm system” for bacterial invasions as they are present in periodontal epithelial cells and are capable of recognizing and responding to bacterial infections. Moreover, endothelial PARs participate in the regulation of vascular tone and permeability while in vascular smooth muscle they mediate contraction, proliferation, and hypertrophy.
Here, we give a comprehensive introduction to members of the PARs family, including but not limited to proteinase-activated receptor 1, proteinase-activated receptor 2. To learn more detailed information, please click the links below.
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