Introduction of PTGER2
PTGER2, also known as EP2 or Prostaglandin E2 receptor 2, is a 53 kDa prostaglandin receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) encoded by the human gene PTGER2. It is one of the four identified EP receptors, the others being EP1, EP3, and EP4. The PTGER2 gene is located on human chromosome 14 at position p22.1 (i.e. 14q22.1), and it comprises 2 introns and 3 exons, and codes for a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) of the rhodopsin-like receptor family, Subfamily A14. PTGER2 is broadly distributed in humans. It is expressed in human small intestine, lung, uterus, thymus, brain cerebral cortex, corneal epithelium, and so on.
|Basic Information of PTGER2|
|Protein Name||Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2 subtype|
|Aliases||Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2 subtype, PGE receptor EP2 subtype, PGE2 receptor EP2 subtype, Prostanoid EP2 receptor|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Function of PTGER2 Membrane Protein
This PTGER2 receptor serves several functions. When PTGER2 receptor was applied topically into the eyes of rodents, cats, rhesus monkeys, and humans PGE2 acts, apparently acting at least in part through PTGER2, decreases intraocular pressure. Studies suggested that female mice engineered to lack a functional PTGER2 gene show a modest reduction in ovulation and more severely impaired capacity for Fertilisation. Besides, activation of PTGER2 also influences allergic inflammatory reactions. And, the PTGER2 receptor can act as a tumor promoter. In addition, PTGER2 gene knockout mice have less lung, breast, skin, and colon cancers following exposure to carcinogens.
Fig.1 Possible way of PTGER2 mediating the effect of PGE2 on endometrial growth. (Zhang, 2017)
Application of PTGER2 Membrane Protein in Literature
This article indicates that PGE2 can inhibit Treg differentiation mediated through the PTGER2-cAMP/PKA signaling pathway, and suggest novel immune-based therapies for use in RA treatment.
This article suggests that PGE2 produced by MSCs contributes to the maintenance of self-renewal capacity through PTGER2 in an autocrine manner, and PGE2 secretion is down-regulated by cell-to-cell contact, attenuating its immunomodulatory potency.
This article reveals that the PTGER2 promoter is under epigenetic control, and one explanation for PGE2 resistance in AERD is an epigenetically mediated reduction of PTGER2 receptor expression, which could contribute to the refractory nasal polyposis typically observed in this syndrome.
Thise article has found that in PC3 cells most of these PGE2-induced cancer-related features are due to intracellular PGE2 (iPGE2).
This article has demonstrated that gestations were 3.3 days longer (95%CI 0.6, 6.0) for each interquartile range of PTGER2 DNA methylation. Higher LINE 1-HS methylation was associated with shorter gestations.
PTGER2 Preparation Options
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