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PTGER2 Membrane Protein Introduction

Introduction of PTGER2

PTGER2, also known as EP2 or Prostaglandin E2 receptor 2, is a 53 kDa prostaglandin receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) encoded by the human gene PTGER2. It is one of the four identified EP receptors, the others being EP1, EP3, and EP4. The PTGER2 gene is located on human chromosome 14 at position p22.1 (i.e. 14q22.1), and it comprises 2 introns and 3 exons, and codes for a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) of the rhodopsin-like receptor family, Subfamily A14. PTGER2 is broadly distributed in humans. It is expressed in human small intestine, lung, uterus, thymus, brain cerebral cortex, corneal epithelium, and so on.

Basic Information of PTGER2
Protein Name Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2 subtype
Gene Name PTGER2
Aliases Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2 subtype, PGE receptor EP2 subtype, PGE2 receptor EP2 subtype, Prostanoid EP2 receptor
Organism Homo sapiens (Human)
UniProt ID P43116
Transmembrane Times 7
Length (aa) 358
Sequence MGNASNDSQSEDCETRQWLPPGESPAISSVMFSAGVLGNLIALALLARRWRGDV
GCSAGRRSSLSLFHVLVTELVFTDLLGTCLISPVVLASYARNQTLVALAPESRA
CTYFAFAMTFFSLATMLMLFAMALERYLSIGHPYFYQRRVSRSGGLAVLPVIYA
VSLLFCSLPLLDYGQYVQYCPGTWCFIRHGRTAYLQLYATLLLLLIVSVLACNF
SVILNLIRMHRRSRRSRCGPSLGSGRGGPGARRRGERVSMAEETDHLILLAIMT
ITFAVCSLPFTIFAYMNETSSRKEKWDLQALRFLSINSIIDPWVFAILRPPVLR
LMRSVLCCRISLRTQDATQTSCSTQSDASKQADL

Function of PTGER2 Membrane Protein

This PTGER2 receptor serves several functions. When PTGER2 receptor was applied topically into the eyes of rodents, cats, rhesus monkeys, and humans PGE2 acts, apparently acting at least in part through PTGER2, decreases intraocular pressure. Studies suggested that female mice engineered to lack a functional PTGER2 gene show a modest reduction in ovulation and more severely impaired capacity for Fertilisation. Besides, activation of PTGER2 also influences allergic inflammatory reactions. And, the PTGER2 receptor can act as a tumor promoter. In addition, PTGER2 gene knockout mice have less lung, breast, skin, and colon cancers following exposure to carcinogens.

Possible way of PTGER2 mediating the effect of PGE2 on endometrial growth. Fig.1 Possible way of PTGER2 mediating the effect of PGE2 on endometrial growth. (Zhang, 2017)

Application of PTGER2 Membrane Protein in Literature

  1. Li H., et al. Prostaglandin E2 restrains human Treg cell differentiation via E prostanoid receptor 2-protein kinase A signaling. Immunol Lett. 2017, 191: 63-72. PubMed: 28963072

    This article indicates that PGE2 can inhibit Treg differentiation mediated through the PTGER2-cAMP/PKA signaling pathway, and suggest novel immune-based therapies for use in RA treatment.

  2. Lee B.C., et al. PGE2 maintains self-renewal of human adult stem cells via EP2-mediated autocrine signaling and its production is regulated by cell-to-cell contact. Sci Rep. 2016, 6: 26298. PubMed: 27230257

    This article suggests that PGE2 produced by MSCs contributes to the maintenance of self-renewal capacity through PTGER2 in an autocrine manner, and PGE2 secretion is down-regulated by cell-to-cell contact, attenuating its immunomodulatory potency.

  3. Cahill K.N., et al. Impaired E Prostanoid2 Expression and Resistance to Prostaglandin E2 in Nasal Polyp Fibroblasts from Subjects with Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2016, 54(1): 34-40. PubMed: 26051534

    This article reveals that the PTGER2 promoter is under epigenetic control, and one explanation for PGE2 resistance in AERD is an epigenetically mediated reduction of PTGER2 receptor expression, which could contribute to the refractory nasal polyposis typically observed in this syndrome.

  4. Fernández-Martínez A.B., et al. Intracellular EP2 prostanoid receptor promotes cancer-related phenotypes in PC3 cells. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2015, 72(17): 3355-3373. PubMed: 25828575

    Thise article has found that in PC3 cells most of these PGE2-induced cancer-related features are due to intracellular PGE2 (iPGE2).

  5. Burris H.H., et al. Association between length of gestation and cervical DNA methylation of PTGER2 and LINE 1-HS. Epigenetics. 2014, 9(8): 1083-1091. PubMed: 24827772

    This article has demonstrated that gestations were 3.3 days longer (95%CI 0.6, 6.0) for each interquartile range of PTGER2 DNA methylation. Higher LINE 1-HS methylation was associated with shorter gestations.

PTGER2 Preparation Options

To obtain the soluble and functional target protein, the versatile Magic™ membrane protein production platform in Creative Biolabs enables many flexible options, from which you can always find a better match for your particular project. Aided by our versatile Magic™ anti-membrane protein antibody discovery platform, we also provide customized anti-PTGDR antibody development services.


As a forward-looking research institute as well as a leading custom service provider in the field of membrane protein, Creative Biolabs has won good reputation among our worldwide customers for successfully accomplishing numerous challenging projects including generation of many functional membrane proteins. Please feel free to contact us for more information.

Reference

  1. Zhang S., et al. (2017). The effect of prostaglandin E2 receptor (PTGER2) activation on growth factor expression and cell proliferation in bovine endometrial explants. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids (PLEFA). 122, 16-23.

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