Creative Biolabs provides affinity-isolated anti-glutathione antibodies only reacting with glutathione-protein complexes under non-reducing conditions based on our excellent High-Affi™ technology.
S-glutathionylation is a post-translational modification of protein cysteine residues by the addition of glutathione through disulfide bond and distributes widely from bacteria to humans. S-glutathionylation was discovered early in 1985, but at the last 10 years, it was understood as second messengers of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). It serves as a protective mechanism against irreversible cysteine oxidation with reversible modification catalyzed by glutathione S-transferase P and removed by glutaredoxin. Many diverse cellular proteins are reported to undergo glutathionylation, such as transcription factors, cytokines, adhesion molecules, and enzymes. The balance between oxidation and reduction reactions makes S-glutathionylation involve in some critical cellular processes, including those associated with proliferation, apoptosis, inflammatory responses, and senescence. S-glutathionylation produces crosstalk with phosphorylation in signal transduction by modulating several kinases (PKA, CK) and phosphatases (PP2A, PTEN). It is also involved in glycosylation through acting on cell metabolism enzymes. In turn, changing in S-glutathionylation of specific proteins cause an imbalance in ROS/RNS and perturbs thiol-disulfide homeostasis, linking with diverse diseases. Evidence shows that S-glutathionylation can modify several proteins involved in the cellular signaling of cancer. Tumor suppressor PTEN is inactivated by glutathionylation, which shifts the equilibrium towards the PI3K and activates the Akt pathway, leading to the activation of the cell survival pathways in cancer. S-glutathionylation status also contributes to the etiology of cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and cardiac hypertrophy. Overall protein S-glutathionylation was increased approximately 15-fold following ischemia-reperfusion (IR). In addition, S-glutathionylation is related to diabetes, lung diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. S-glutathionylation has been investigated as biomarkers of diseases for diagnostic and prognostic.
Fig. 1 S-glutathionylation cycle. (Xiong Y et al. 2011)
Creative Biolabs has years of experience in antibody discovery and production. Based on the strong expertise, our scientists can produce the anti-glutathione antibodies with high specificity and affinity, which can be utilized as biomarkers or other valuable tools to facilitate either academic research or clinical diagnosis.
In addition to the S-glutathionylation-specific antibody, Creative Biolabs also provides a comprehensive list of PTM-specific antibody production services of your choice.