Creative Biolabs provides site-specific and pan S-nitrosylated antibodies based on our excellent High-Affi™ technology. Small peptide corresponding to S-nitrosocysteine is conjugated to Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) or Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH), and the antibodies are purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation or affinity isolation. These antibodies only target conjugated S-nitrosocysteine, but do not recognize free S-nitrosocysteine.
S-nitrosylation (also known as S-nitrosation) of proteins is an important post-translational modification that specifically and covalently attaches nitric oxide (NO)-related species to a cysteine thiol group on the target protein, resulting in forming an S-nitrosothiol (SNO) protein. S-nitrosylation was hypothesized to have evolved on primordial earth, now has been found ubiquitous in biology and demonstrated to occur in all phylogenetic kingdoms. S-nitrosylation is a reversible process and counterbalanced by denitrosylation, which is demonstrated to be an enzymatic reaction process with S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) and thioredoxin (Trx). There is a certain degree of interaction between S-nitrosylation and other PTMs, as the property of the thiol group of the cysteine also permit itself to be modified by other PTM such as S-palmitoylation, S-glutathionylation, and S-sulfhydration.
Up to now, thousands of peptides and proteins have been reported and characterized as S-nitrosylation targets. A growing research indicated that S-nitrosylation could affect both protein structure and function physiologically and pathologically, such as by modulating enzymatic activities and protein-protein interaction, regulating protein subcellular location and the level of expression of proteins in cells. However, with environmental toxins or aging that generates excessive NO, aberrant S-nitrosylation reactions can occur and lead to protein misfolding, ER stress, mitochondrial fragmentation, synaptic damage, autophagy or apoptosis. These dysregulated S-nitrosylation processes can contribute to the pathogenesis of a broad range of diseases, including asthma, cystic fibrosis, neurodegenerative diseases, heart failure, and cancer. Therefore, S-nitrosylation can serve as a new therapeutic target by the understanding of S-nitrosylation under different disease conditions and the mastering of various techniques in targeting dysregulated protein S-nitrosylation.
Fig. 1 Cellular regulation by reversible cysteine nitrosylation. (Benhar M, Forrester M T, and Stamler J S., 2009)
This antibody is suitable for research work under physiological and pathological conditions with tested applications of WB, ELISA, and IHC. Creative Biolabs offers cutting edge services for the development of specific antibodies. All products are designed elaborately by our professional scientist to make sure our customers will get the best possible outcome.
In addition to the S-nitrosylation-specific antibody, Creative Biolabs also provides a comprehensive list of PTM-specific antibody production services of your choice.