Single Domain Antibody Discovery via DNA Immunization

Single domain antibody has become an essential tool for the detection of proteins in a various number of basic studies and diagnostics. As a global leader in the antibodies discovery and production, Creative Biolabs offers a range of single domain antibody discovery services with our well-established high-efficient DNA immunization strategy in a timely and cost-effective manner.

DNA Immunization Strategy and Applications

DNA immunization is a fascinating strategy to produce antibodies, in which native proteins are expressed in vivo with normal posttranscriptional modifications, passing time-consuming and costly antigen isolation or synthesis. Meanwhile, DNA immunization has been widely exploited to invoke protective or therapeutic immune responses. This is based on several gene delivery approaches, such as direct injection of naked plasmid DNA, in vivo electroporation, gene gun delivery, and our novel Magic™ DNA immunization strategy. Significantly, even just small amounts of protein being generated by the transfected cells (picograms), a potent immune response could be induced.

DNA Immunization enables to stimulate the generation of both antibodies and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, besides, it has attracted many interests of usage in vaccines. One major advantage of this technology is the fact that proteins are synthesized in vivo, leading to the generation of proteins in their natural conformation. Thereby, DNA immunization-produced mAbs are primarily high affinity and can recognize the native form of the protein. It is also very helpful in those cases where the protein is difficult or unable to produce, such as membrane-bound or secreted proteins.

Representation of the single domain antibody specific features. Single domain antibodies are able to derive from different immunoglobulines. Camelid VHs and VHHs differ for four hallmark amino acid residues which are pivotal for keeping the V domain stability when it is expressed paired to the VL domain or alone, respectively.

Single Domain Antibody

The single domain antibodies, also known as sdAbs, are the hotspot of antibody research in HIV, cancer, and other cellular diseases. They are a group of antibody fragments comprising of a single monomeric variable antibody domain and lacking the light chain and CH domain of the heavy chain in conventional Fab region. sdAbs from camelid (refers to VHH antibodies) are the first sdAbs engineered from the VHH domain of heavy-chain antibody identified in camelids (e.g. dromedaries, llamas, and alpacas). Because of lacking light chains, sdAbs are smaller and more stable than traditional antibodies, however, they have the fully functional antigen-binding capacity. Owing to their size,
approximately 15 kDa, sdAbs are good at reaching otherwise inaccessible epitopes which may serve an important role in the molecular mechanisms of disease.

Our DNA immunization technology enables the development of sdAbs against any protein target directly from DNA, an electronic sequence, or an accession number. With this innovative technology, Creative Biolabs will contribute greatly to your research projects in a timely and cost-effective manner.

In addition to the single domain antibody discovery services, Creative Biolabs can also provide other customized services via DNA immunization, such as:


  1. de Marco, A. (2011). “Biotechnological applications of recombinant single-domain antibody fragments.” Microbial cell factories, 10(1), 44.

All listed customized services & products are for research use only, not intended for pharmaceutical, diagnostic, therapeutic or any in vivo human use.

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