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SLC24A5 Membrane Protein Introduction

Introduction of SLC24A5

One of the key pigmentation genes in humans is SLC24A5 (OMIM 609802). It is located on chromosome 15q21.1 and encodes a protein called SLC24A5 (NCKX5). The association of this gene with lighter pigmentation was initially discovered in zebrafish. Using admixed populations, it was further demonstrated that a non-synonymous variant (ref SNP ID: rs1426654) in the third exon of SLC24A5 gene explains 25-38% of the skin color variation between Europeans and West Africans. Functional assays suggested its direct involvement in human melanogenesis through cation-exchange activity.

Basic Information of SLC24A5
Protein Name Sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger 5
Gene Name SLC24A5
Aliases Na(+)/K(+)/Ca(2+)-exchange protein 5, Solute carrier family 24 member 5, NCKX5
Organism Homo sapiens (Human)
UniProt ID Q71RS6
Transmembrane Times 11
Length (aa) 688
Sequence MQTKGGQTWARRALLLGILWATAHLPLSGTSLPQRLPRATGNSTQCVISPSSEFPEGFFTRQERRDGGIIIYFLIIVYMFMAISIVCDEYFLPSLEIISESLGLSQDVAGTTFMAAGSSAPELVTAFLGVFITKGDIGISTILGSAIYNLLGICAACGLLSNTVSTLSCWPLFRDCAAYTISAAAVLGIIYDNQVYWYEGALLLLIYGLYVLVLCFDIKINQYIIKKCSPCCACLAKAMERSEQQPLMGWEDEGQPFIRRQSRTDSGIFYEDSGYSQLSISLHGLSQVSEDPPSVFNMPEADLKRIFWVLSLPIITLLFLTTPDCRKKFWKNYFVITFFMSAIWISAFTYILVWMVTITGETLEIPDTVMGLTLLAAGTSIPDTIASVLVARKGKGDMAMSNIVGSNVFDMLCLGIPWFIKTAFINGSAPAEVNSRGLTYITISLNISIIFLFLAVHFNGWKLDRKLGIVCLLSYLGLATLSVLYELGIIGNNKIRGCGG

Function of SLC24A5 Membrane Protein

Variation of a non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism (nsSNP; rs1426654) in the gene SLC24A5 is associated with differences in constitutive skin color in South Asians. The nsSNP encodes the substitution of alanine for threonine at residue 111 (A111T) near a transmembrane region required for exchanger activity, a region which is highly conserved across different species and between NCKX family members. We have shown that SLC24A5 is located at the trans-Golgi network of melanocytes and functions as a potassium-dependent sodium-calcium exchanger. When heterologously expressed, the A111T variant of SLC24A5 shows significantly lower exchanger activity than the wide type. It has postulated that lower exchanger activity causes reduced melanogenesis.

Potential role(s) and regulation of calcium (Ca) transport genes, i.e., TRPV5/6, calbindins, PCMA1, and NCX1/NCKX3, in reproductive tissues for Ca transport and reproductive functions. Fig.1 Potential role(s) and regulation of calcium (Ca) transport genes, i.e., TRPV5/6, calbindins, PCMA1, and NCX1/NCKX3, in reproductive tissues for Ca transport and reproductive functions. (Choi, 2011)

Application of SLC24A5 Membrane Protein in Literature

  1. Wilson S., et al. NCKX5, a natural regulator of human skin colour variation, regulates the expression of key pigment genes MC1R and alpha-MSH and alters cholesterol homeostasis in normal human melanocytes. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013, 961: 95-107. PubMed ID: 23224873

    This article implies that NCKX5 exchanger function influences natural variation in skin pigmentation via a novel, unknown mechanism affecting cellular sterol levels.

  2. Mack M., et al. Two Variants in SLC24A5 Are Associated with “Tiger-Eye” Iris Pigmentation in Puerto Rican Paso Fino Horses. G3 (Bethesda). 2017, 7: 2799-2806. PubMed ID: 28655738

    This article proposes that two mutations in SLC24A5 affect iris pigmentation in tiger-eye PRPF horses. Further, unlike OCA6 in humans, the Tiger-eye 1 mutation in its homozygous state or as a compound heterozygote (Tiger-eye 1/Tiger-eye 2) does not appear to cause ocular anomalies or a change in coat color in the PRPF horse.

  3. Ginger R.S., et al. SLC24A5 encodes a trans-Golgi network protein with potassium-dependent sodium-calcium exchange activity that regulates human epidermal melanogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2008, 283: 5486-5495. PubMed ID: 18166528

    This article suggests that NCKX5 directly regulates human epidermal melanogenesis and natural skin color through its intracellular potassium-dependent exchanger activity.

  4. Lamason R.L., et al. SLC24A5, a putative cation exchanger, affects pigmentation in zebrafish and humans. Science. 2005, 310(5755): 1782-6. PubMed ID: 16357253

    By studying the localization and function of the zebrafish slc24a5 gene, the authors believe that the SLC24A5 gene plays an important role in human pigmentation.

  5. Rogasevskaia T.P., et al. Cellular localization of the K+-dependent Na+-Ca2+ exchanger NCKX5 and the role of the cytoplasmic loop in its distribution in pigmented cells. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2019, 32(1): 55-67. PubMed ID: 29981211

    This article reveals that NCKX5 is not a PM resident and is exclusively located in the TGN. Moreover, the large cytoplasmic loop is the determinant for retaining NCKX5 in the TGN.

SLC24A5 Preparation Options

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Reference

  1. Choi K C, et al. (2011). Regulation and molecular mechanisms of calcium transport genes: do they play a role in calcium transport in the uterine endometrium. J Physiol Pharmacol. 62(5): 499-504.

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