Introduction of SLC29A4
Solute carrier family 29 member 4 (SLC29A4), also known as Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 4 (ENT4), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC29A4 gene. Belonging to the Equilibrative nucleoside transporter family, SLC29A4 also contains 11 transmembrane domains, several putative phosphorylation sites, and a C-terminal N-glycosylation site. SLC29A4 gene is mapped to chromosome 7p22.1. SLC29A4 is highly expressed in brain, heart (in both cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells) and skeletal muscle and more weakly expressed in kidney, heart, and liver.
|Basic Information of SLC29A4|
|Protein Name||Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 4|
|Aliases||Solute carrier family 29 member 4, SLC29A4, ENT4, plasma membrane monoamine transporter, PMAT|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Function of SLC29A4 Membrane Protein
Unlike other ENT subtypes, SLC29A4 is not broadly specific for nucleosides and nucleoside analogs such as uridine, cytidine, thymidine, inosine, guanosine, and azidothymidine. However, it can transport adenosine efficiently with a fashion highly sensitive to extracellular pH, with maximal activity in the pH range 5.5 to 6.5. SLC29A4 activity is low at neutral pH but is greatly increased at acidic pH, showing pH-dependent adenosine transport activity. Notably, SLC29A4 has been shown to transport several compounds, such as monoamine neurotransmitters 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and biogenic amines including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. So, it plays a significant role in regulating central nervous system homeostasis of monoamine neurotransmitters. In addition, it is reported that SLC29A4 is involved in luminal transport of organic cations in the kidney and seems to use luminal proton gradient to drive organic cation reabsorption.
Fig.1 Topological model of human ENT protein. (Sundaram, 2001)
Application SLC29A4 of Membrane Protein in Literature
This article identifies the most potent and selective inhibitors of hENT4 to date, which may serve as useful pharmacological/biochemical tools and/or potential leads for ENT4-based therapeutics.
This article reveals SLC29A4 mutations are associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) population although not invariably to low brain serotonin. In addition, SLC29A4 dysfunction is speculated to raise serotonin prenatally, exerting a negative feedback inhibition through serotonin receptors on development of serotonin networks and local serotonin synthesis.
This study concludes that ENT4 may contribute to the regulation of extracellular adenosine in the heart, especially under the acidotic conditions associated with ischemia, so the development of specific ENT4 inhibitors may open a new avenue in research on ischemic heart disease therapy.
The authors reveal that the inhibitors of plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT/SLC29A4) can significantly inhibit the [3H]histamine uptake by TR-CSFB3 cells, suggesting the elimination of histamine from the CSF via PMAT/SLC29A4 at the blood-brain barrier and blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB).
This article demonstrates that PMAT/SLC29A4 is a major transporter for choroid plexus (CP) uptake of bioactive amines and xenobiotic cations. By removing its substrates from the CSF, PMAT/SLC29A4 may play an important role in protecting the brain from cationic neurotoxins and other potentially toxic organic cations.
SLC29A4 Preparation Options
To provide high-quality membrane protein products, we have developed an advanced Magic™ membrane protein production platform which enables many options, from which we will find you the perfect one. We have already presented efficient reconstitution forms and active formats for the interested proteins. Aided by our versatile Magic™ anti-membrane protein antibody discovery platform, we also provide customized anti-SLC29A4 antibody development services.
As a forward-looking organization and professional service provider, Creative Biolabs is confident in promoting global customers’ programs based on years of experience and professional scientists. Furthermore, we are skilled in offering suitable and efficient customized membrane protein preparation services to meet every client’s specific requirements. To learn more information, please feel free to contact us for more information.