Solute carrier family 52, also known as riboflavin transporter family (RFVT/SLC52), is composed of three riboflavin transporters: SLC52A1, SLC52A2, and SLC52A3. These transporters function by binding to riboflavin, which is a water-soluble vitamin also known as vitamin B2. These receptors have exhibited different distribution characteristics. SLC52A1 is highly expressed in the placenta and small intestine, SLC52A2 is expressed ubiquitously, especially higher in the brain and salivary gland. SLC52A3 is predominantly expressed in the testis and small intestine. As for substrate specificity, the three share a similar substrate specificity. However, the driving force of riboflavin transporters has not been clarified.
It has been strongly suggested that SLC52 transporters play important roles in riboflavin homeostasis. Moreover, polymorphisms in SLC52A1 and SLC52A3 could be the cause of two genetic diseases: riboflavin-responsive transient neonatal-onset MADD and BVVL syndrome, respectively. Further study of the SLC52 family is required to be conducted. Here, we give a brief summary of our current understanding of the human solute carrier family 52 members, including the structure, gene location, tissue distribution, substrate specificity, etc.
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