Solute Carrier Family 5

Solute carrier family 5 (SLC5), also known as the sodium-glucose linked transporter (SGLT), is a family of glucose transporters that mediate the transport of glucose and structurally related substances across cellular membranes. This family has 12 human genes expressed in tissues ranging from epithelia to the central nervous system. Among the 12 transporters, 10 are tightly coupled plasma membrane Na(+)/substrate cotransporters for solutes such as glucose, myoinositol, and anions; 1 is a Na(+)/Cl(-)/choline cotransporter; and another is a glucose activated ion channel. Besides, members of the SLC5 family are multifunctional membrane proteins in that they also behave as uniporters, urea and water channels, and urea and water cotransporters.

The SCL5A1 and SCL5A2 are the two most well-known members of SLC5. SLC5A3 is a sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter while SLC5A5 is a sodium/iodide cotransporter. SLC5A6 is also known as the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter, a putative transporter for uptake of biotin and pantothenic acid at the blood-brain barrier. SLC5A7 is called the high-affinity choline transporter that carries choline into acetylcholine-synthesizing neurons. SLC5A8 is a high-affinity sodium-coupled transporter for short-chain fatty acids while SCL5A9 is an essential transporter for mannose, 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol, and fructose. The other members of SCL5 are less studied.

Herein, we give an introduction to the following human SLC5 members focusing on their structure, transport mechanisms, function, and pharmaceutical potential/applications.

Human Solute Carrier Family 5 Members

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