Synaptic vesicle glycoproteins, also known as synaptic vesicle proteins, 2SV2 proteins, are the integral membrane glycoprotein found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. SV2 proteins contain 12 membrane-spanning regions and have homology with a group of transporters. It is deduced that the 6 most N-terminal transmembrane regions share high homology with a subfamily of transporters such as the human glucose transporter, while the 6 most C-terminal regions are identified with the plasma membrane transporters for neurotransmitters. Studies have been identified that SV2 proteins mediate the fast Ca2+-dependent synaptic vesicle exocytosis participating in the regulation of neurotransmitters transmission. However, the deficiency of SV2 proteins may lead to presynaptic Ca2+ accumulation during consecutive action potentials, increasing neurotransmitter release thereby inducing epilepsy progression.
There are three isoforms of SV2 proteins: SV2A, SV2B, and SV2C encoded by SV2A, SV2B, and SV2C genes, respectively. SV2A is widely expressed in almost all nerve cells. SV2B is present in SV2A-containing neurons, but not as widely as SV2A. While SV2C is only found in a few brain areas. Here show the three isoforms of SV2 proteins.
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