TAAR2 Membrane Protein Introduction

Introduction of TAAR2

Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR2), formerly known as G protein-coupled receptor 58 (GPR58), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAAR2 gene. And it has 7 transmembrane domains with short N and C terminal extensions. TAAR2 is coexpressed with Gα proteins. In humans, six genes are predicted to exist encoding trace amine-associated receptors, TAAR1, TAAR2, TAAR5, TAAR6, TAAR8 and TAAR9 and are thought to be functional genes. As most of these receptors do not respond to trace amines, each subfamily will presumably have a distinct pharmacological profile, which remains to be identified. So, some article proposes a uniform nomenclature describing this novel GPCR family in all mammalian species as trace-amine-associated receptors (TAARs), which resolves the ambiguities and contradictions of the previous naming.

Basic Information of TAAR2
Protein Name Trace amine-associated receptor 2
Gene Name TAAR2
Aliases TAR2, GRP58
Organism Homo sapiens (Human)
UniProt ID Q9P1P5
Transmembrane Times 7
Length (aa) 351

Function of TAAR2 Membrane Protein

Human TAAR2 (hTAAR2) is expressed in the cerebellum, olfactory sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium, and leukocytes, but not in the pons, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, caudate, putamen, frontal cortex, basal forebrain, midbrain or liver. Among other tissues, hTAAR1 and hTAAR2 are both required for white blood cell activation by trace amines in granulocytes. TAAR2 is a probable pseudogene in 10–15% of Asians as a result of a polymorphism that produces a premature stop codon at amino acid 168. TAAR1 is an important paralog for TAAR2. And for the Clinically-relevant mutations and pathophysiology comments, a SNP nonsense mutation in the TAAR2 gene has been associated with schizophrenia.

Structure of TAAR2 membrane protein. Fig.1 Structure of TAAR2 membrane protein.

Application of TAAR2 Membrane Protein in Literature

  1. Babusyte A., et al. Biogenic amines activate blood leukocytes via trace amine-associated receptors TAAR1 and TAAR2. Journal of leukocyte biology. 2013, 93(3):387-94. PubMed ID: 23315425.

    This article found the functional expression of TAAR1 and its closest relative TAAR2 in blood PMN and T and B cells results. And demonstrate that biogenic amines potently regulate blood cell functions via TAAR1 and TAAR2 and open the perspective of their specific pharmacological modulation.

  2. Liberles S.D., et al. A second class of chemosensory receptors in the olfactory epithelium. Nature. 2006, 442(7103):645-50. PubMed ID: 16878137.

    This paper found TAAR expression only in olfactory epithelial cells and that each TAAR detects a unique set of amine ligands. TAARs seem to function as a family of chemosensory receptors for amines.

  3. Lindemann L., et al. Trace amine-associated receptors form structurally and functionally distinct subfamilies of novel G protein-coupled receptors. Genomics. 2005, 85(3):372-85. PubMed ID: 15718104.

    This article proposes a uniform nomenclature describing this novel GPCR family in all mammalian species as trace-amine-associated receptors (TAARs), which resolves the ambiguities and contradictions of the previous naming.

  4. Khan M.Z., et al. The emerging roles of human trace amines and human trace amine-associated receptors (hTAARs) in central nervous system. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy. 2016, 83:439-49. PubMed ID: 27424325.

    This article discusses the known functions of human trace amine receptors in brain.

TAAR2 Preparation Options

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