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TAAR3P Membrane Protein Introduction

Introduction of TAAR3P

Putative trace amine-associated receptor 3 (TAAR3P) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAAR3 gene, belonging to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. It is also known as G protein-coupled receptor 57(GPR57), trace amine receptor 3(TAAR3) or trace amine associated receptor 3 (gene/pseudogene). The molecular mass of this protein is 39KD, and the chromosomal location of TAAR3P is in the 6q23.2. TAAR3P also belongs to the Class A Orphans family which is thought to be a pseudogene in man though functional in rodents. In humans, a further five genes are predicted to exist encoding trace amine associated receptors, TAAR2, TAAR5, TAAR6, TAAR8 and TAAR9.

Basic Information of TAAR3P
Protein Name Putative trace amine-associated receptor 3
Gene Name TAAR3P
Aliases TAR-3, TAAR3, GPR57, htaar3
Organism Homo sapiens (Human)
UniProt ID Q9P1P4
Transmembrane Times 7
Length (aa) 343
Sequence MDLTYIPEDLSSCPKFVNKILSSHQPLFSCPGDNVFGYDWSHDYPLFGNLVIMVSISHFKQLHSPTNFLI
LSMATTDFLLGFVIMPYSIMRSVESCWYFGDGFCKFHTSFDMMLRLTSIFHLCSIAIDRFYAVCYPLHYT
TKMTNSTIKQLLAFCWSVPALFSFGLVLSEADVSGMQSYKILVACFNFCALTFNKFWGTILFTTCFFTPG
SIMVGIYGKIFIVSKQHARVISHVPENTKGAVKKHLSKKKDRKAAKTLGIVMGVFLACWLPCFLAVLIDP
YLDYSTPILILDLLVWLRYFNSTCNPLIHGFFNPWFQKAFKYIVSGKIFSSHSETANLFPEAH

Function of TAAR3P Membrane Protein

TAAR3P is a pseudogene which is not expressed in the pons, thalamus, globus pallidus, caudate, putamen or cerebellum. Its related pathways are peptide ligand-binding receptors and signaling by GPCR. TAAR3P mediates the G-protein coupled receptor activity, trace-amine receptor activity and the sensory perception of chemical stimulus. Besides, it was proven that murine TAAR5 recognize volatile amines and signal through Gs protein/adenylyl cyclases activation. Research has also demonstrated that the agonist profiles of TAAR5 vary notably among mammals and that the agonists identified in mouse may not to be the natural agonists that are responsible for the selective constraints observed among primates.

Anatomical distribution of trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs): expression of members of the TAAR family across the body. Fig.1 Anatomical distribution of trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs): expression of members of the TAAR family across the body.

Application of TAAR3P Membrane Protein in Literature

  1. Gloriam D.E., et al. High species variation within the repertoire of trace amine receptors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2005, 1040:323-7. PubMed ID: 15891052.

    This article shows that the previously cloned and characterized GPCRs from insects and mollusks are more closely related to mammalian serotonin, dopamine, and adrenalin receptors than to mammalian TA receptors.

  2. Liberles S.D., et al. A second class of chemosensory receptors in the olfactory epithelium. Nature. 2006, 442(7103):645-50. PubMed ID: 16878137.

    This paper found TAAR is expressed only in olfactory epithelial cells and that each TAAR detects a unique set of amine ligands. TAARs seem to function as a family of chemosensory receptors for amines.

  3. Lee D.K., et al. Cloning and characterization of additional members of the G protein-coupled receptor family. Biochimica et biophysica acta. 2000, 1490(3):311-23. PubMed ID: 10684976.

    Analysis of this subfamily revealed greatest identities between the receptors encoded by GPR57, GPR58. And it found that psiGPR57, GPR58, PNR and the 5-HT(4) pseudogene were mapped in a cluster localized to chromosome 6q22-24. PNR and GPR58 were expressed in COS cells.

  4. Lindemann L., et al. Trace amine-associated receptors form structurally and functionally distinct subfamilies of novel G protein-coupled receptors. Genomics. 2005, 85(3):372-85. PubMed ID: 15718104.

    This article proposes a uniform nomenclature describing this novel GPCR family in all mammalian species as trace-amine-associated receptors (TAARs), which resolves the ambiguities and contradictions of the previous naming.

  5. Khan M.Z., et al. The emerging roles of human trace amines and human trace amine-associated receptors (hTAARs) in central nervous system. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy. 2016, 83:439-49. PubMed ID: 27424325.

    This article discusses the known functions of human trace amine receptors in brain.

TAAR3P Preparation Options

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Reference

  1. Rutigliano G, et al. (2018). The case for TAAR1 as a modulator of central nervous system function. Frontiers in pharmacology, 8, 987.

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