TAS1R3 Membrane Protein Introduction

Introduction of TAS1R3

TAS1R3 (Taste receptor type 1 member 3), a G protein-coupled receptor, is encoded by TAS1R3 gene. It can regulate the respond of human or mice to sucrose, saccharin, and other sweeteners. TAS1R3 is found as a subunit of TAS1R1 and TAS1R2 receptors, which express alone only in a small number of taste cells. Research shows that TAS1R3 is related to various diseases, such as Kallmann syndrome, hyposmia, and syndromic obesity.

Basic Information of TAS1R3
Protein Name Taste receptor type 1 member 3
Gene Name TAS1R3
Aliases T1R3, TR3
Organism Homo sapiens (Human)
UniProt ID Q8TE23
Transmembrane Times 7
Length (aa) 852

Function of TAS1R3 Membrane Protein

TAS1R member 3 (TAS1R3) is a bifunctional protein, which can form a heterodimeric receptor with TAS1R1 to respond to the umami taste, or can bind with TAS1R2 to respond to the sweet taste. TAS1R3 can also bind to the G protein, which is a typical “C” type GPCRs, with large N-terminal domains that exhibit a venus flytrap binding module similar to other C type receptors. Recent studies indicate that the TAS1R3 expression in Tas1R3 mutant mice can affect cortical bone mass. The SNP polymorphism of TAS1R3 has previously been reported that it is associated with altered taste perception of sucrose.

Human Taste Receptor of TAS1R3. Fig.1 Human Taste Receptor of TAS1R3.

Application of TAS1R3 Membrane Protein in Literature

  1. Eaton M.S., et al. Loss of the nutrient sensor TAS1R3 leads to reduced bone resorption. J Physiol Biochem. 2018, 74(1): 3-8. PubMed ID: 29019082

    Authors analyze the osteoclast function of TAS1R3 mutant mice, and the results suggest that uncoupled bone remodeling is the main reason for this situation, which can provide the basis for future experiments in examining the cell-type-dependent role for TAS1R family members.

  2. Qin Y., et al. Gli3 is a negative regulator of Tas1r3-expressing taste cells. PLoS Genet. 2018, 14(2). PubMed ID: 29415007

    This article analyses the expression level of Gli3 in Tas1r3-expressing taste receptor cells, and results show Gli3 can affect the number and function of mature taste cells, especially Tas1r3+ cells, in the adult posterior tongue. The study may help the treatments for the distortion of taste caused by chemotherapy and aging.

  3. Zopun M., et al. Non-caloric sweeteners induce peripheral serotonin secretion via a T1R3-dependent pathway in human gastric cells in culture. J Agric Food Chem. 2018, 66(27): 7044-7053. PubMed ID: 29874909

    Authors conduct a study to compare the 5-HT release level of Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NCS) with neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), and results indicate the 5-HT is induced by NCS through T1R3 in human gastric parietal cells.

  4. Valente C., et al. Genes from the TAS1R and TAS2R families of taste receptors: looking for signatures of their adaptive role in human evolution. Genome Biol Evol. 2018, 10(4): 1139-1152. PubMed ID: 29635333

    This article analyses the sequence variation data from 1000 Genomes Project Phase 3 for TAS1R (TAS1R1-3) and TAS2R (TAS2R16 and TAS2R38) families. Results show TAS1R3 could be a potential biomarker in genes encoding bitter, sweet, and umami taste receptors.

  5. Melo S.V., et al. Evaluation of the association between the TAS1R3 and TAS1R3 variants and food intake and nutritional status in children. Genet Mol Biol. 2017, 40(2): 415-420. PubMed ID: 28497839

    This study aims to investigate the association of TAS1R2 (Ile191Val - rs35874116) and TAS1R3 (-1266 C/T - rs35744813) variants with food intake and nutritional status in children followed from birth until 7.7 years old. They find a genetic variant of the T1R2 taste receptor is associated with the intake of different amounts of high sugar-content foods in childhood.

TAS1R3 Preparation Options

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