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TAS2R43 Membrane Protein Introduction

Introduction of TAS2R43

TAS2R43 is a member of the G-protein coupled receptor T2R family. The perception of bitter taste is mediated by TAS2Rs, which is a family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). TAS2Rs are mainly expressed in bitter taste cells on our tongue and transduce intracellular signals through the activation of intracellular heterotrimeric G proteins. These receptors recognize bitter compounds various in chemical structure.

Basic Information of TAS2R43
Protein Name Taste receptor type 2 member 43
Gene Name TAS2R43
Aliases Taste receptor type 2 member 52
Organism Homo sapiens (Human)
UniProt ID P59537
Transmembrane Times 7
Length (aa) 309
Sequence MITFLPIIFSSLVVVTFVIGNFANGFIALVNSIEWFKRQKISFADQILTALAVSRVGLLW
VLLLNWYSTVLNPAFNSVEVRTTAYNIWAVINHFSNWLATTLSIFYLLKIANFSNFIFLH
LKRRVKSVILVMLLGPLLFLACHLFVINMNEIVRTKEFEGNMTWKIKLKSAMYFSNMTVT
MVANLVPFTLTLLSFMLLICSLCKHLKKMQLHGKGSQDPSTKVHIKALQTVISFLLLCAI
YFLSIMISVWSFGSLENKPVFMFCKAIRFSYPSIHPFILIWGNKKLKQTFLSVFWQMRYW
VKGEKTSSP

Function ofTAS2R43 Membrane Protein

TAS2R receptors are coupled to G proteins and second messenger pathways and are mainly expressed at the surface of taste receptor cells. We humans distinguish different tastes through those receptors. TAS2R43 is a member of TAS2R family. It has bitter taste receptor activity. At the same time, it also has G-protein coupled receptor activity. The main role of TAS2R43 is transducing signal of bitness to intracellular, and then to brain by nervous system, and finally, we feel bitter. From the predicted results performed using TOPCONS, we can see TAS2R43 has 7 transmembrane regions and 2 glycosylation sites (161 and 176) and some other particular sites marked with different colors (Fig. 1). By the way, TAS2R43 as a membrane protein is difficult to be gotten tertiary structure. So far, the 3D structure of it hasn't been determined.

Secondary Structure Prediction of TAS2R43 with the Position of the Transmembrane Region Performed using TOPCONS. Fig.1 Secondary Structure Prediction of TAS2R43 with the Position of the Transmembrane Region Performed using TOPCONS. (Ayana, 2012)

Application of TAS2R43 Membrane Protein in Literature

  1. Suess B., et al. The odorant (R)-citronellal attenuates caffeine bitterness by inhibiting the bitter receptors TAS2R43 and TAS2R46. J Agric Food Chem. 2018, 66(10): 2301-2311. PubMed ID: 27569025

    This article reveals (R)-citronellal to completely block caffeine-induced calcium signals in TAS2R43-expressing cells, and, to a lesser extent, in TAS2R46-expressing cells and has proved 3-methyl-branched aliphatic aldehydes with a carbon chain of ≥4 C atoms to be the best TAS2R43 antagonists by further structure/activity studies.

  2. Sandau M.M., et al. A functional comparison of the domestic cat bitter receptors Tas2r38 and Tas2r43 with their human orthologs. BMC Neurosci. 2015, 16: 33. PubMed ID: 26037485

    This article demonstrates that the response profiles of the human bitter receptors Tas2r43 and Tas2r38 are different from those of their orthologous cat receptors. Results with cat Tas2r38 also demonstrate that additional residues beyond those classically associated with PROP sensitivity in humans influence the sensitivity to PROP and PTC. Functional studies of the human bitter receptor family have contributed to the development of food and medicinal products.

  3. Pirastu N., et al. Association analysis of bitter receptor genes in five isolated populations identifies a significant correlation between TAS2R43 variants and coffee liking. PLoS One. 2014, 9(3): e92065. PubMed ID: 24647340

    This article finds a significant association between differences in caffeine perception and the H212R variant but not with the W35S (both variants have been shown to greatly reduce in vitro protein activity), which suggests that the effect of the TAS2R43 gene on coffee liking mostly relate to caffeine and in particular the H212R variant.

  4. Wooding S.P., et al. Association of a bitter taste receptor mutation with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN). BMC Med Genet. 2012, 13: 96. PubMed ID: 23050764

    This article reveals that BEN is positively related with TAS2R43-W35/H212, an allele previously shown to confer elevated bitter sensitivity to aristolochic acid, which may cause aversion but might also affect absorption, altering toxin activation.

  5. Liszt K.I., et al. Caffeine induces gastric acid secretion via bitter taste signaling in gastric parietal cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017,114(30): E6260-E6269. PubMed ID: 28696284

    This article reveals that the caffeine-evoked effect is shown to depend on one of its cognate receptor TAS2R43.

TAS2R43 Preparation Options

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Reference

  1. Ayana Wiener, et al. (2012). A database of bitter compounds. Nucleic Acids Res. 40(Database issue), D413-419.

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