Introduction of TAS2R43
TAS2R43 is a member of the G-protein coupled receptor T2R family. The perception of bitter taste is mediated by TAS2Rs, which is a family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). TAS2Rs are mainly expressed in bitter taste cells on our tongue and transduce intracellular signals through the activation of intracellular heterotrimeric G proteins. These receptors recognize bitter compounds various in chemical structure.
|Basic Information of TAS2R43|
|Protein Name||Taste receptor type 2 member 43|
|Aliases||Taste receptor type 2 member 52|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Function ofTAS2R43 Membrane Protein
TAS2R receptors are coupled to G proteins and second messenger pathways and are mainly expressed at the surface of taste receptor cells. We humans distinguish different tastes through those receptors. TAS2R43 is a member of TAS2R family. It has bitter taste receptor activity. At the same time, it also has G-protein coupled receptor activity. The main role of TAS2R43 is transducing signal of bitness to intracellular, and then to brain by nervous system, and finally, we feel bitter. From the predicted results performed using TOPCONS, we can see TAS2R43 has 7 transmembrane regions and 2 glycosylation sites (161 and 176) and some other particular sites marked with different colors (Fig. 1). By the way, TAS2R43 as a membrane protein is difficult to be gotten tertiary structure. So far, the 3D structure of it hasn't been determined.
Fig.1 Secondary Structure Prediction of TAS2R43 with the Position of the Transmembrane Region Performed using TOPCONS. (Ayana, 2012)
Application of TAS2R43 Membrane Protein in Literature
This article reveals (R)-citronellal to completely block caffeine-induced calcium signals in TAS2R43-expressing cells, and, to a lesser extent, in TAS2R46-expressing cells and has proved 3-methyl-branched aliphatic aldehydes with a carbon chain of ≥4 C atoms to be the best TAS2R43 antagonists by further structure/activity studies.
This article demonstrates that the response profiles of the human bitter receptors Tas2r43 and Tas2r38 are different from those of their orthologous cat receptors. Results with cat Tas2r38 also demonstrate that additional residues beyond those classically associated with PROP sensitivity in humans influence the sensitivity to PROP and PTC. Functional studies of the human bitter receptor family have contributed to the development of food and medicinal products.
This article finds a significant association between differences in caffeine perception and the H212R variant but not with the W35S (both variants have been shown to greatly reduce in vitro protein activity), which suggests that the effect of the TAS2R43 gene on coffee liking mostly relate to caffeine and in particular the H212R variant.
This article reveals that BEN is positively related with TAS2R43-W35/H212, an allele previously shown to confer elevated bitter sensitivity to aristolochic acid, which may cause aversion but might also affect absorption, altering toxin activation.
This article reveals that the caffeine-evoked effect is shown to depend on one of its cognate receptor TAS2R43.
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