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TAS2R50 Membrane Protein Introduction

Introduction of TAS2R50

Taste receptor type 2 member 50 (TAS2R50, T2R50 or T2R51) is a member of bitter taste receptors, a set of typical G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). TAS2R50 is encoded by TAS2R50 gene, mapped to a 1.2-Mb TAS2R gene cluster on chromosome 12p13.2 by somatic cell hybrid and genomic sequence analyses. The molecular weight of TAS2R50 is predicted to be 34 kDa, comprising 299 amino acids. The architecture of TAS2R50 is characterized by a 7-transmembrane structure and conserved short N- and C-terminal domains. The intracellular domains share significant conservation with other TAS2R family members. So far, the 3D structure of TAS2R50 hasn't been determined.

Basic Information of TAS2R50
Protein Name Taste receptor type 2 member 50
Gene Name TAS2R50
Aliases Taste receptor type 2 member 51, T2R51
Organism Homo sapiens (Human)
UniProt ID P59544
Transmembrane Times 7
Length (aa) 299
Sequence MITFLYIFFSILIMVLFVLGNFANGFIALVNFIDWVKRKKISSADQILTALAVSRIGLLW
ALLLNWYLTVLNPAFYSVELRITSYNAWVVTNHFSMWLAANLSIFYLLKIANFSNLLFLH
LKRRVRSVILVILLGTLIFLVCHLLVANMDESMWAEEYEGNMTGKMKLRNTVHLSYLTVT
TLWSFIPFTLSLISFLMLICSLCKHLKKMQLHGEGSQDLSTKVHIKALQTLISFLLLCAI
FFLFLIVSVWSPRRLRNDPVVMVSKAVGNIYLAFDSFILIWRTKKLKHTFLLILCQIRC

Function of TAS2R50 Membrane Protein

As a membrane protein, the tertiary structure of TAS2R50 is difficult to be abstracted, until now, the 3D structure of TAS2R50 hasn't been determined. In human, more than 25 hTAS2Rs are closely related to the perception of the bitterness of thousands of structurally diverse compounds, while hTAS2R50 is the most distant member of the subfamily. Identified as a taste receptor, TAS2R50 is mainly expressed in subsets of taste receptor cells of the tongue and exclusively in gustducin-positive cells. The most well-known function is to apperceive the bitterness, which is gustducin-linked. Besides, it plays a role in sensing the chemical composition of the gastrointestinal content, stimulates alpha gustducin, mediates PLC-beta-2 activation and leads to the gating of TRPM5. And the transduction pathways are mediated through a G protein-coupled second messenger pathway. By somatic cell hybrid and genomic sequence analyses, TAS2R50 gene variants are associated with myocardial infarction (MI).

The canonical T2R signaling pathway. Fig.1 The canonical T2R signaling pathway. (Lu, 2017)

Application of TAS2R50 Membrane Protein in Literature

  1. Akao H., et al. KIF6, LPA, TAS2R50, and VAMP8 genetic variation, low density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering response to pravastatin, and heart disease risk reduction in the elderly. Atherosclerosis. 2012, 220(2): 456-62. PubMed ID: 22192511

    This article indicates that the assessment of KIF6 rs20455 and TAS2R50 rs1376251 genotypes are useful for predicting CHD risk reduction in women in this elderly population, but cannot predict statin-induced cardiovascular risk reduction in men.

  2. Nutr C., et al. Variations in bitter-taste receptor genes, dietary intake, and colorectal adenoma risk. Nutr Cancer. 2013, 65(7): 982-90. PubMed ID: 24083639

    This article has explored associations among colorectal adenoma risk, dietary intake, and genetic variation in 3 bitter-taste receptor genes: TAS2R38, TAS2R16, and TAS2R50. It has also observed weak inverse associations between the TAS2R50 C allele and dietary fiber and vegetable intake (Ps < 0.015).

  3. Knaapila A., et al. Genetic analysis of chemosensory traits in human twins. Chem Senses. 2012, 37(9): 869-81. PubMed ID: 22977065

    This article detects new relevance for ratings of basil and a bitter taste receptor gene, TAS2R60, and between cilantro and variants in three genes (TAS2R50, GNAT3, and TRPA1), and then demonstrates that genetic variation within chemosensory pathways accounts for person-to-person differences in the smell and taste perception of simple foods and drinks.

  4. Garcia-Esparcia P., et al. Functional genomics reveals dysregulation of cortical olfactory receptors in Parkinson disease: novel putative chemoreceptors in the human brain. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2013, 72(6): 524-39. PubMed ID: 23656994

    This article indicates that cortical olfactory receptors (ORs) and taste receptors (TASRs) are altered in Parkinson disease patients. At premotor and parkinsonian stages in the frontal cortex area 8 in Parkinson disease patient brains, olfactory receptors OR2L13, OR1E1, OR2J3, OR52L1, and OR11H1 and taste receptors TAS2R5 and TAS2R50 are down-regulated, but TAS2R10 and TAS2R13 are up-regulated.

  5. Behrens M., et al. The human bitter taste receptor hTAS2R50 is activated by the two natural bitter terpenoids andrographolide and amarogentin. J Agric Food Chem. 2009, 57(21). PubMed ID: 19817411

    This article reveals that TAS2R50, the most distant member of the subfamily, is activated by the two natural bitter terpenoids andrographolide and amarogentin.

TAS2R50 Preparation Options

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Reference

  1. Lu P, et al. (2017). Extraoral bitter taste receptors in health and disease. The Journal of general physiology. 149(2), 181-197.

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