TAS2R60 Membrane Protein Introduction

Introduction of TAS2R60

Taste receptor type 2 member 60 (TAS2R60, T2R60 or T2R56) belongs to the bitter taste receptors family (TAS2Rs), which is a set of typical G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Encoded by TAS2R60 gene, TAS2R60 molecular weight is predicted to be 36 kDa, comprising 318 amino acids. This gene is mapped to an approximately 3-Mb cluster on chromosome 7q35 by somatic cell hybrid and genomic sequence analyses. There has been reported 1 transcript (splice variant), 1 gene allele, 30 orthologues, 23 paralogues of TAS2R60 gene. Similar to other TAS2Rs, TAS2R60 also possesses a 7-transmembrane structure and conserved short N- and C-terminal domains, and the intracellular domains are significantly conservative with other TAS2R family members.

Basic Information of TAS2R60
Protein Name Taste receptor type 2 member 60
Gene Name TAS2R60
Aliases Taste receptor type 2 member 56, T2R56
Organism Homo sapiens (Human)
UniProt ID P59551
Transmembrane Times 7
Length (aa) 318

Function of TAS2R60 Membrane Protein

As a member of TAS2R family, TAS2R60 in humans acts as sensors for bitter compounds in vertebrates. TAS2Rs, including TAS2R60, are canonically located in taste buds of the tongue, where they initiate bitter taste perception to avoid harmful toxins and noxious substances and thus is critical to animal and human survival. However, more and more evidence has shown that TAS2Rs are widely expressed in several extraoral systems, including the digestive, respiratory, and genitourinary systems, as well as in brain and immune cells, indicating the diverse biological functions in their varied locations. The extraoral TAS2Rs (including TAS2R60) may be attractive targets for new drug discovery, and that currently used bitter medicines may exert their pharmacological functions by acting on these extraoral receptors - which, until now, have been considered side effects or adverse effects. It is documented that TAS2Rs may play in processes as diverse as innate immunity, secretion, contraction, reproduction, and urination. The polymorphisms of TAS2Rs are associated with human disorders.

Schematics of TAS1R (sweet and umami) and TAS2R (bitter) Taste Receptors. Fig.1 Schematics of TAS1R (sweet and umami) and TAS2R (bitter) Taste Receptors.

Application of TAS2R60 Membrane Protein in Literature

  1. Knaapila A., et al. Genetic analysis of chemosensory traits in human twins. Chem Senses. 2012, 37(9): 869-81. PubMed ID: 22977065

    This article detects new relevance for ratings of basil and a bitter taste receptor gene, TAS2R60, and between cilantro and variants in three genes (TAS2R50, GNAT3, and TRPA1), and then demonstrates that genetic variation within chemosensory pathways accounts for person-to-person differences in the smell and taste perception of simple foods and drinks.

  2. Mennella J.A., et al. Use of adult sensory panel to study individual differences in the palatability of a pediatric HIV treatment drug. Clinical Therapeutics. 2017, 39(10): 2038-2048. PubMed ID: 28923290

    This article reveals that Bitterness and irritation ratings of Kaletra (liquid formulation of the co-formulated protease inhibitors lopinavir/ritonavir for HIV) varied by the orphaned bitter receptor gene (TAS2R60), whereas sweetness ratings of Kaletra varied according to the cold receptor gene (TRPM8), which is activated by menthol, an excipient of Kaletra.

  3. Valente C., et al. Genes from the TAS1R and TAS2R families of taste receptors: looking for signatures of their adaptive role in human evolution. Genome Biol Evol. 2018, 10(4): 1139–1152. PubMed ID: 29635333

    This article surveys the available sequence variation data of TAS1R and TAS2R families from the 1000 Genomes Project Phase 3 and reveals that genes from these two families have experienced contrasting evolutionary histories.

  4. Meyerhof W., et al. The molecular receptive ranges of human TAS2R bitter taste receptors. Chemical Senses. 2010, 35(2): 157-170. PubMed ID: 20022913

    The authors challenge 25 human taste 2 receptors (hTAS2Rs) with 104 natural or synthetic bitter chemicals in a heterologous expression system and find that the detection of the numerous bitter chemicals is related to the molecular receptive ranges of hTAS2Rs.

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