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TAS2R9 Membrane Protein Introduction

Introduction of TAS2R9

Taste receptor type 2 member 9 (TAS2R9) is a member of the family of candidate taste receptors which belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily. The receptor is encoded by TAS2R9 gene and is predicted to be 35.6 kDa, comprising 312 amino acids. The structure of TAS2R9 is characterized by a 7-transmembrane structure and conserved short N- and C-terminal domains, sharing high conservation with other TAS2R family members in the intracellular domains. TAS2R9 gene is organized in chromosome 12p13.2 in clusters and is genetically linked to loci that influence bitter perception in mice and humans.

Basic Information of TAS2R9
Protein Name Taste receptor type 2 member 9
Gene Name TAS2R9
Aliases Taste receptor family B member 6
Organism Homo sapiens (Human)
UniProt ID Q9NYW1
Transmembrane Times 7
Length (aa) 312
Sequence MPSAIEAIYIILIAGELTIGIWGNGFIVLVNCIDWLKRRDISLIDIILISLAISRICLLC
VISLDGFFMLLFPGTYGNSVLVSIVNVVWTFANNSSLWFTSCLSIFYLLKIANISHPFFF
WLKLKINKVMLAILLGSFLISLIISVPKNDDMWYHLFKVSHEENITWKFKVSKIPGTFKQ
LTLNLGVMVPFILCLISFFLLLFSLVRHTKQIRLHATGFRDPSTEAHMRAIKAVIIFLLL
LIVYYPVFLVMTSSALIPQGKLVLMIGDIVTVIFPSSHSFILIMGNSKLREAFLKMLRFV
KCFLRRRKPFVP

Function of TAS2R9 Membrane Protein

TAS2R9 is identified as a bitter taste receptor to participate in the perception of bitter compounds in the oral cavity and the gastrointestinal tract. Besides the canonical distribution in taste buds of the tongue where they initiate bitter taste perception to avoid the ingestion of potentially harmful, dangerous, and toxic substances, TAS2Rs, including TAS2R9, have shown to be widely expressed in several non-gustatory tissues, including gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, pulmonary, reproductive, immune, and central nervous system tissues, indicating the diverse biological functions. Putative functions of TAS2Rs have also been related to various diseases, including severe asthma and cancer. In addition, several well-known agonists of specific TAS2Rs have been tested to exhibit anti-cancer effects, indicating their chemotherapeutic potential. It is documented that a single nucleotide polymorphism Ala187Val from TAS2R9 is associated with the ability to perceive the bitterness from acesulfame potassium (AceK).

Molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of bitter receptor signaling by Ric-8A. Fig.1 Molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of bitter receptor signaling by Ric-8A. (Fenech, 2009)

Application of TAS2R9 Membrane Protein in Literature

  1. Allen A.L., et al. Bitterness of the non-nutritive sweetener acesulfame potassium varies with polymorphisms in TAS2R9 and TAS2R31. Chem Senses. 2013, 38(5): 379-89. PubMed ID: 23599216

    This article demonstrates that a polymorphism Ala187Val in TAS2R9 not been previously reported as being functional for AceK was shown to predict bitterness in vivo.

  2. Allen A.L., et al. Rebaudioside A and Rebaudioside D bitterness do not covary with Acesulfame K bitterness or polymorphisms in TAS2R9 and TAS2R31. Chemosens Percept. 2013, 6(3). PubMed ID: 24187601

    This article demonstrates that putatively functional polymorphisms in TAS2R9 did not predict the bitterness of RebA or RebD. The inability of TAS2R31 and TAS2R9 SNPs to predict RebA and RebD bitterness would be expected given the absence of a relationship between AceK bitterness and RebA/RebD bitterness.

  3. Dotson C.D., et al. Bitter taste receptors influence glucose homeostasis. PLoS One. 2008, 3(12): e3974. PubMed ID: 19092995

    This article finds that one single-nucleotide polymorphism within this haplotype breaks normal response of TAS2R9 to its natural ligands irenzapine, procainamide, and ofloxacinp. It also reveals that a functionally compromised TAS2R receptor has a negative impact on glucose homeostasis, acting as a key link between metabolic disease and alimentary chemosensation.

  4. Ribani A., et al. Next generation semiconductor based sequencing of bitter taste receptor genes in different pig populations and association analysis using a selective DNA pool-seq approach. Anim Genet. 2017, 48(1): 97-102. PubMed ID: 27435880

    This article analyses nine porcine TAS2R genes (TAS2R1, TAS2R3, TAS2R4, TAS2R7, TAS2R9, TAS2R10, TAS2R16, TAS2R38 and TAS2R39) to identify variability and, at the same time, estimate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele frequencies in several populations and tests differences in an association analysis by using a DNA pool-seq approach coupled with next-generation semiconductor-based target resequencing.

  5. Cirera S., et al. A targeted genotyping approach enhances identification of variants in taste receptor and appetite/reward genes of potential functional importance for obesity-related porcine traits. Anim Genet. 2018, 49(2): 110-118. PubMed ID: 29441627

    This article reveals that TAS2R9, FOS, TAS2R4, SIM1, LEPR, and MCHR2, show good correlation between associated phenotype and known biological function.

TAS2R9 Preparation Options

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Reference

  1. Fenech C J, et al. (2009). Ric-8A, a Gα protein guanine nucleotide exchange factor potentiates taste receptor signaling. Frontiers in cellular neuroscience. 3, 11.

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