Introduction of TAS2R9
Taste receptor type 2 member 9 (TAS2R9) is a member of the family of candidate taste receptors which belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily. The receptor is encoded by TAS2R9 gene and is predicted to be 35.6 kDa, comprising 312 amino acids. The structure of TAS2R9 is characterized by a 7-transmembrane structure and conserved short N- and C-terminal domains, sharing high conservation with other TAS2R family members in the intracellular domains. TAS2R9 gene is organized in chromosome 12p13.2 in clusters and is genetically linked to loci that influence bitter perception in mice and humans.
|Basic Information of TAS2R9|
|Protein Name||Taste receptor type 2 member 9|
|Aliases||Taste receptor family B member 6|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Function of TAS2R9 Membrane Protein
TAS2R9 is identified as a bitter taste receptor to participate in the perception of bitter compounds in the oral cavity and the gastrointestinal tract. Besides the canonical distribution in taste buds of the tongue where they initiate bitter taste perception to avoid the ingestion of potentially harmful, dangerous, and toxic substances, TAS2Rs, including TAS2R9, have shown to be widely expressed in several non-gustatory tissues, including gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, pulmonary, reproductive, immune, and central nervous system tissues, indicating the diverse biological functions. Putative functions of TAS2Rs have also been related to various diseases, including severe asthma and cancer. In addition, several well-known agonists of specific TAS2Rs have been tested to exhibit anti-cancer effects, indicating their chemotherapeutic potential. It is documented that a single nucleotide polymorphism Ala187Val from TAS2R9 is associated with the ability to perceive the bitterness from acesulfame potassium (AceK).
Fig.1 Molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of bitter receptor signaling by Ric-8A. (Fenech, 2009)
Application of TAS2R9 Membrane Protein in Literature
This article demonstrates that a polymorphism Ala187Val in TAS2R9 not been previously reported as being functional for AceK was shown to predict bitterness in vivo.
This article demonstrates that putatively functional polymorphisms in TAS2R9 did not predict the bitterness of RebA or RebD. The inability of TAS2R31 and TAS2R9 SNPs to predict RebA and RebD bitterness would be expected given the absence of a relationship between AceK bitterness and RebA/RebD bitterness.
This article finds that one single-nucleotide polymorphism within this haplotype breaks normal response of TAS2R9 to its natural ligands irenzapine, procainamide, and ofloxacinp. It also reveals that a functionally compromised TAS2R receptor has a negative impact on glucose homeostasis, acting as a key link between metabolic disease and alimentary chemosensation.
This article analyses nine porcine TAS2R genes (TAS2R1, TAS2R3, TAS2R4, TAS2R7, TAS2R9, TAS2R10, TAS2R16, TAS2R38 and TAS2R39) to identify variability and, at the same time, estimate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele frequencies in several populations and tests differences in an association analysis by using a DNA pool-seq approach coupled with next-generation semiconductor-based target resequencing.
This article reveals that TAS2R9, FOS, TAS2R4, SIM1, LEPR, and MCHR2, show good correlation between associated phenotype and known biological function.
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