Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) are a family of vertebrate, rhodopsin-like, type A G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The discovery of the first TAAR (TAAR1) was made independently by two groups of investigators, Borowsky et al. and Bunzow et al., in 2001. By now up to 26 subtypes of TAAR have been identified in mammalian species and are classified into nine sub-families (TAAR1-9). Repeated species-specific expansions and pseudogenization events have occurred within these nine sub-families, giving rise to species-specific isoforms. Humans express a single functional variant of the TAR family members (TAAR1, 2, 5, 6, 8, and 9) with TAAR3, 4, and 7 subtypes appearing to be pseudogenes. Among the TTAR family, TAAR1 is the first to be discovered and thus is the most well-characterized, regarding its molecular mechanisms and potential importance as a novel clinical target. Selective TAAR1 ligands that show beneficial effects in pre-clinical animal model systems with relevance to schizophrenia and drug abuse have been under development.
Recent years have seen significant advancements in understanding the molecular mechanisms and their therapeutic potential of other TAARs, as well. However, there is still much that remains to be understood and there is an urgent need for suitable research reagents and translational tools for further investigations. Here, we give an introduction to the following human TAARs, highlighting the recent developments, their functions, and clinical implications.
Moreover, it is worthy to notice that Creative Biolabs now offers a comprehensive list of membrane protein preparation services to help accelerate the studies of TAARs. With our integrated cutting-edge technologies and powerful platform, we can isolate and stabilize your protein in different functional formats. These include widely-used classical detergent micelles and proteoliposomes, as well as novel techniques, such as nanodiscs, lipoparticles, and polymers. Moreover, we can provide stably transfected cell lines that overexpress your target of interest to effectively facilitate your research.
For the discovery of antibodies against these membrane protein targets, Creative Biolabs offers our Magic™ membrane protein antibody discovery platform to suit your various research needs. We also present DNA immunization service for anti-membrane protein antibody development. If you want to learn more about what we can do, please feel free to contact us and discuss your requirements.