Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8), also known as the cold and menthol receptor 1 (CMR1), is encoded by the TRPM8 gene. Similar to other members of the TRPM family, TRPM8 also contains a large N terminal hydrophilic domain with eight potential N-linked glycosylation sites, a putative C-terminal coiled coil that is important for channel assembly, trafficking, and function and 6 transmembrane domains. The TRPM8 channel is the most important ion channel acting as a molecular transducer of cold somatosensation in humans.
|Basic Information of TRPM8|
|Protein Name||Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8|
|Aliases||LTRPC6, TRPP8, CMR1|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
TRPM8 is a non-selective cation channel allowing the influx of Ca²⁺ and Na⁺ ions to the cell that leads to the depolarization of the plasma membrane and the generation of an action potential. In addition, TRPM8 is characterized as a detector of cold and it is the principal mediator of menthol-induced analgesia of acute and inflammatory pain. TRPM8 shows the property of a polymodal sensor that can integrate multiple chemical and physical stimuli into cellular signaling. Except for cold temperatures, TRPM8 can be activated by a number of chemical agonists that are known to produce cool sensations such as menthol and eucalyptol. In addition to cold and menthol, TRPM8 is sensitive to voltage and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). The contribution of TRPM8 to both analgesia and nociception has been demonstrated, suggesting TRPM8 is a therapeutic target for treatment of cold-related pain, chronic pain, and migraine. It is reported that TRPM8 is indispensable for the survival and proliferation of prostate cancer cells, suggesting that targeting TRPM8 ion channels may be a potential approach to treat prostate cancer.
Fig.1 Schematic representation of TRPM8 structure in the plasma membrane. (Yee, 2015)
This article suggests that TRPV1 may have a critical role in regulating enhanced nocifensive behavior in dry eye disease, while TRPM8 may play a relatively lesser role.
This article shows that activation of the TRPM8 ion channel by icilin or menthol triggers allodynia in spinally injured rats and increases, rather than decreases, mechanical allodynia.
This article reveals that these structural domains are deeply associated with functional modulation and cold sensitivity of TRPM8, and suggests that the pore domain may be the crucial molecular determinant in temperature responses of this thermo-transient receptor potential channel.
This article forms a hypothesis that local adaptation on previously neutral standing variation may be associated with the genetic differences that exist in the prevalence of migraine among human populations today.
This article confirms that the natively raised level of plasma immunoglobulin is associated with immunosuppression under the condition of cold exposure, and antihypertensive drugs can be used to mediate immunosuppression induced by cold exposure.
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