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Tyrosination-Specific Antibody Production Services

Creative Biolabs can offer the customers with highly affinity anti-tyrosinated antibody discovery and production services based on the excellent High-Affi™ technology. These antibodies are produced by optimized immunization with KLH-conjugated linear peptide corresponding to human tyrosinated α-tubulin and purified by affinity chromatography. The antibody reacts against C-terminal tyrosine of α-tubulin but does not cross-react with unmodified peptides.

The characteristics of tyrosination

Tyrosination is one of the earliest reported post-tranlational modification which occurs on most α-tubulin subunits, but not on β-tubulin. It is the addition of a tyrosine residue to the C-terminal glutamate residue of α-tubulin, a reaction of which occurs on soluble tubulin heterodimers. Tyrosination and detyrosination are evolutionary conserved and reversible PTMs. The process is catalyzed by tubulin tyrosine ligase (TTL). By contrast, the enzyme responsible for detyrosination has not been identified.

The functions of tyrosination and detyrosination

The tyrosination and detyrosination PTMs are believed to be associated with at least two microtubule-associated processes. One is to stabilize the microtubules. The other is mediating the interaction of microtubules with microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). Studies showed that detyrosinated tubulin is found in long-lived microtubules, while dynamic microtubules contain tyrosinated tubulin. However, detyrosination itself is not the cause of microtubules stability. But detyrosinated microtubules are less sensitive to kinesin motor-mediated depolymerization, compared to tyrosinated MTs. Detyrosinated microtubules could be preferred cellular highways for transporting different molecular cargo (e.g., vimentin). In addition, tyrosination influences the localization and functions of +TIPs (e.g., CLIP-115, CLIP-170, and p150Glued/dynactin) which help control cell architecture and the distribution of forces on microtubules.

To sum up, tyrosination of MTs is believed to be essential for normal growth and development. Animals without tyrosinated tubulin suffer from malformed cerebral cortical layers, disrupted neuronal connections between the cortex and thalamus, and perinatal death. Conversely, increasing the levels of tyrosinated α-tubulin and manifest adult-onset can cause neurons degeneration and structurally defective sperm. Studies also have shown that tyrosination is downregulated in animal and human cancers, with low levels of tyrosinated tubulin correlate with increased tumor development and invasiveness.

α-tubulin tyrosination and CLIP-170 phosphorylation regulate the initiation of dynein- driven transport in neurons. Fig.1 α-tubulin tyrosination and CLIP-170 phosphorylation regulate the initiation of dynein- driven transport in neurons (Nirschl J J, et al. 2016)

Antibodies are the most useful tools in studying the dynamic and functions of tyrosination. Creative Biolabs has been working in the field of post-translational modification antibody discoveries and productions for many years. Our professional scientists will provide the highest quality services for our global customers.

Creative Biolabs can provide a comprehensive list of PTM-specific antibody production services of your choice.


Reference

  1. Nirschl J J, Magiera M M, Lazarus J E, et al. (2016) “Alpha-tubulin tyrosination and clip-170 phosphorylation regulate the initiation of dynein-driven transport in neurons”. Cell Rep, 14(11): 2637-2652.



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