Creative Biolabs provides global customers with uridylylation-specific antibody production services based on our excellent High-Affi™ technology. The antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with uridylylated peptides conjugate to KLH or BSA carriers and purifying with peptide affinity chromatography column. We can also produce the monoclonal antibody and single domain antibody by phage display technology.
Uridylylation is a common post-translational modification (PTM) that uridine monophosphate (UMP) residues are covalently added to the hydroxyl group. This dynamic and reversible modification is catalyzed by uridylyltransferases and distributes widely in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Generally, uridylylation is taken place on various types of RNA molecules and proteins.
RNA uridylylation is a wide-spread phenomenon and is catalyzed by terminal RNA uridylyltransferases (TUTases) with the transference of UMP residues to the 3'-ends hydroxyl group of preexisting RNA. Uridylylation of RNA appears to impact on a variety of RNA-processing pathways, indicating the regulation role of uridylylation on gene expression. The edition of mRNA within mitochondria of Trypanosomatidae has been characterized in great detail. However, in most cases, the biological significance of uridylylation remains elusive.
A diverse range of enzymes, histones, transcription factors, and cellular component proteins are also subjected to uridylylation, which mainly modifies on histidine and tyrosine. VPg (viral protein genome-linked), a 22 amino acid residue peptide, must undergo uridylylation before it plays a role as primer for replication of the viral RNA genome. VPg directly binds to the viral RNA polymerase, 3D, for covalent uridylylation, yielding mono and di-uridylylated products, VPg-pU and VPg-pUpU. A wealth of data indicates that uridylylation is the first step in poliovirus (PV) RNA synthesis and reduction of uridylylation through mutations of the amino acid sequence will lower or eliminate the formation of infectious virus. PII proteins, GlnB and GlnK are also well studied uridylylated targets which are subject to uridylylation of the conserved tyrosine residue (Tyr51) in the T-loop. The uridylylation/deuridylylation cycle of PII is regulated by carbon and energy signals such as ATP, ADP, and 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG).
In general, the functions of uridylylation are achieved by direct interaction with their targets to promote virulence and infection. It is also a major cause of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations. Therefore, recapitulating uridylylation would provide multiple opportunities for discovering potential antiviral agents. For example, amiloride inhibits VPgpUpU synthesis and viral RNA replication by competing with VPg for binding to 3D (pol) for uridylylation.
Fig. 1 Four-step model for the asymmetric replication of poliovirus RNA. (A) Initiation of negative-strand RNA synthesis (first step); (B) initiation of VPg uridylylation(second step); (C) termination of ongoing VPg Uridylylation(third step); (D) initiation of positive-strand RNA synthesis (fourth step). (Murray K E and Barton D J, 2003)
The study of uridylylation has gained more attention as its complex activity with multiple essential components. Antibodies specific for uridylylation served as key detection tools are widely used in research and development. Creative Biolabs has years of experience in discovering antibodies for a variety of biotherapeutic and diagnostic targets. The excellent reputation and strong research team make sure you get the best possible outcomes.
Creative Biolabs can provide a comprehensive list of PTM-specific antibody production services of your choice.