Development of Vaccines Containing Iron-regulated Protein

Bacterial pathogens – Creative BiolabsThe need for iron by bacterial pathogens ensures that iron is expressed and captured on the surface during infection. These surface-expressed iron receptors are ideal vaccine antigens for the prevention of bacterial infections. Creative Biolabs is a leading company in bacterial vaccine industry. Based on years of experience and a team of professional scientists, we have successfully established a top unique platform and provide specialized identification and purification of iron-regulated proteins directly from host cells or recombinants for vaccine development. We can accommodate the specific attributes of your project and provide flexible and integrated solutions.

Bacterial Pathogens and Iron

Iron is the nutrient required for the survival of bacteria. Bacterial pathogens must acquire iron in their host to replicate and cause disease. Most pathogens circumvent iron detainment by high-affinity iron absorption mechanisms that compete with host-mediated sequestration. These uptake systems can be divided into three broad categories: siderophore-based systems, heme acquisition systems, and transferrin/lactoferrin receptors. In addition to these mechanisms, certain bacteria are able to directly recognize host proteins.

  • Siderophore-based systems. The siderophores are low molecular weight iron-binding complexes secreted by bacteria that bind iron with an association constant of more than 10⁵⁰, allowing the bacteria to compete with iron chelation by transferrin and lactoferrin. After the iron is removed from the host protein, the iron-loaded siderophores bind to a homologous receptor expressed on the surface of the bacteria. The iron carrier-iron complex is then internalized into the bacteria and iron is released as a source of nutrients.
  • Heme acquisition systems. The bacteria recognize heme or a surface receptor of heme that binds to hemoglobin such as hemoglobin or hemoglobin, then heme is removed from the blood protein and transported to the cytoplasm through the envelope of the bacteria. Once inside the cytoplasm, iron is released from heme by the activity of heme oxygenase or antiferrochelatase. Bacterial pathogens can also be carefully designed to secrete heme-securing molecules that remove heme from the host's heme. These molecules, called hemophores, are functionally similar to siderophores, but target heme proteins, while siderophores target iron atoms.
  • Transferrin/lactoferrin receptors.
  • Direct recognition of host proteins.

Bacterial pathogens can acquire iron through receptor-mediated recognition of transferrin, lactoferrin, hemopexin, hemoglobin, or hemoglobin–haptoglobin complexes.

Fig.2 Bacterial pathogens can acquire iron through receptor-mediated recognition of transferrin, lactoferrin, hemopexin, hemoglobin, or hemoglobin–haptoglobin complexes. (Skaar EP. 2010)

Strategies of Iron-regulated Protein Vaccines

The need for iron by bacterial pathogens ensures that iron is expressed and captured on the surface during infection. This fact has established surface exposed iron receptors as viable vaccine candidates for the prevention of bacterial infections. Creative Biolabs now provides antigen discovery services targeting proteins that acquire iron. Our unique platform allows rapid identification and purification of iron-regulated proteins directly from host cells or recombinants for vaccine development.

If you are interested in our services, please contact us to get more information or directly send us an online inquiry.

Reference

  1. Skaar EP. The battle for iron between bacterial pathogens and their vertebrate hosts. PLoS Pathog. 2010, 6(8):e1000949.

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