Vaccines for Virus from Astroviridae Family

Creative Biolabs is a professional vaccine research company with more than 10 years of experience in vaccine development. While conducting vaccine research and development, the company continues to release a series of high-quality vaccine-related products and services for vaccine research worldwide. Our professionalism and service awareness will provide reliable technical support to vaccine researchers around the world.

Astrovirus

As a pathogen of gastroenteritis in children, the virus in the Astroviridae family was first discovered in 1975. The virus is hosted by humans, mammals, and avian species. Depending on the Astroviridae-infected host, the family's virus can be divided into two genera, Mamastrovirus (MAstV) and Avastrovirus (AAstV), the former infecting mammals and the latter infecting avian. Astrovirus (AstV) has no envelope, the genome is single-stranded, positive-sense RNA, and the virus replicates in the human gastrointestinal tract. The main manifestations of gastroenteritis caused by Astrovirus include diarrhea, nausea, fever, vomiting, and abdominal pain. The severity of the disease is related to the region, because different climatic factors have different effects on the life cycle and mode of transmission of such viruses, and the individual's immune status and nutritional situations have a great influence on the progress of the disease caused by the viruses, sometimes patients infected with the viruses can heal themselves without hospitalization. In general, the astroviruses that are being studied for vaccine research are Chicken Astrovirus, Porcine Astrovirus, Bovine Astrovirus, and Human Astrovirus.

Mechanisms of Pathogenesis

The most common disease caused by Astrovirus is diarrhea. The histological changes caused by the infection of the intestine are mild, and the viruses usually cause little inflammatory reaction. The inflammatory response and destruction of the intestinal epithelium play a minor role in AstV infection. On the contrary, the main cause of the disease is the rapid loss of body fluids and electrolytes that was induced by the weakened normal absorption of the intestine, inhibited activation of secretion process, and damage of intestinal epithelial barrier permeability, all of which were attributed to infection with AstV. The turkey model study of AstV infection found that during the infection, the activity of maltase decreased, and the decrease in the activity of this enzyme affected the absorption and decomposition of disaccharide, which in turn caused osmotic diarrhea and subsequently led to intestinal malabsorption. Absorption of sodium ions due to redistribution of sodium transporters was also found in the model. In addition, the fact that HAstV infection affects epithelial barrier permeability independently of replication of the virus indicates that HAstV’s capsid protein may function as an enterotoxin.

Development of Vaccines for Astrovirus

Infection with astroviruses can cause gastroenteritis in children who are still immature in the immune system or in immunocompromised elderly. Such viruses are also the fourth most common pathogen known to cause viral gastroenteritis. Although the symptoms caused by Astroviruses are relatively mild to the host, they still affect the health and quality of life of children and the elderly who are more sensitive to the virus. Therefore, it is still necessary to develop a vaccine to prevent Astrovirus infection. In addition to the preparation of monovalent inactivated vaccines or subunit vaccines targeting viral capsid proteins, it is a promising strategy to prepare a vaccine that can prevent the infection of AstV, Noroviruses and Hepatitis E viruses at the same time since these three viruses are all intestinal-transmitted and cause gastroenteritis.

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  • Vaccine design
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  • Vaccine immunogenicity evaluation

The invention of the vaccine was a great achievement, and Creative Biolabs has been in this field for more than a decade. The professional vaccine development team, cutting-edge technology, comprehensive system, and well-established platform, as well as dedication and service attitude have won a good reputation for Creative Biolabs in the industry. Our products and services also have been highly recognized by vaccine researchers all over the world. If you are in need of any vaccine research, please contact us immediately!


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