Vaccines for Virus from Papillomaviridae Family

Papillomaviruses are small non-enveloped viruses that package an approximately 8 kb circular dsDNA genome. More than 300 papillomaviruses have been reported to date, of which human papillomavirus and bovine papillomavirus pose potential threats to humans and animals. Therefore, it is extremely urgent to develop an effective papillomavirus vaccine to prevent and treat viral infections.

Background of Virus from Papillomaviridae Family

Papillomaviruses (PV) comprise a large family of small DNA tumor viruses that infect the epithelia of skin and mucosa of many animal species and humans, causing benign hyperproliferation, papillomas or warts. The viral capsid consists of only two proteins, the major capsid protein L1 and the minor capsid protein L2. In the absence of L2, L1 can self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs), which are effective in protecting the host from viral infections and are therefore often considered vaccine candidates. To date, more than 200 human papillomavirus and approximately 140 animal papillomavirus types have been reported.

Vaccines for Bovine Papillomavirus

Bovine papillomaviruses (BPV), belonging to the papillomavirus genus, are DNA oncogenic viruses inducing hyperplastic benign lesions of both cutaneous and mucosal epithelia in cattle. The BPV virion is a non-enveloped icosahedral structure with a diameter of 55-60 nm, forming paracrystalline particles in the nucleus of the infected cell. It contains a double-stranded covalently closed circular DNA of approximately 8,000 nucleotides complexed with cellular histones. The BPV genome consists of three distinct regions: a long control region (LCR) containing essential elements for viral DNA replication and transcription, and two regions containing open reading frames (ORFs) corresponding to early and late genes. The early genes encode proteins which are involved in viral DNA replication, transcription, and cell transformation and the late genes encode capsid proteins. Early and late gene-encoded proteins play an important role in viral infection, therefore, an effective measure to prevent and treat BPV is to develop vaccines based on these proteins. Currently, some DNA vaccines and subunit vaccines based on these functional proteins have been developed and proven to be effective in protecting animals from BPV infection.

Vaccines for Human Papillomavirus

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) belongs to a large family of non-enveloped, small, approximately 7.9-8 kbp circular dsDNA viruses that are surrounded by icosahedral protein capsid, mainly composed of a highly immunogenic L1 protein, with a minor contribution from the L2 protein. The virus is the cause of squamous epithelial cell proliferation, or common warts, on areas of the body such as the hands, feet, anus, cervix, scrotum, groin, thigh, or penis. To control HPV infection, vaccines play an unparalleled role in the prevention and control of HPV. In recent years, recombinant HPV VLPs have been produced in large quantities at commercial level by expressing the major capsid protein L1 of HPV in yeast or insect cells. From a morphological point of view, VLPs, like natural HPV virions, have great potential to induce animal and human type-specific antibody responses. The patents granted have developed a technique of disassembly and reassembly of VLPs to enhance the stability of VLPs. These HPV vaccines are capable of preventing persistent HPV infection as well as protecting against premalignant cervical lesions.

Creative Biolabs is a highly proactive, robust, and diversified company with a strong, scientifically-proven background of viral vaccine development. We have experts who are able to provide you with different types of vaccine for the virus from the Papillomaviridae family. If you are interested in our services, please contact us for more details.


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