Vaccines for Viruses Associated with Acute Diarrhoeal Disease

Creative Biolabs is a world leader in the field of viral vaccine development. With our extensive experience and advanced platform, we are therefore confident in offering the best vaccine development services for viruses associated with acute diarrhoeal disease, including Rotaviruses, Caliciviruses, Astroviruses and Enteric Adenoviruses. We guarantee the finest results for our customers all over the world.

Viral gastroenteritis is a global problem in infants and young children. Clinical symptoms are range from mainly upper gastrointestinal symptoms including vomiting to acute watery or bloody diarrhoea without any vomiting, or combinations thereof. In terms of relative frequency of incidence in children, Rotaviruses were found to account for 30–60%, Caliciviruses for 8–30%, Astroviruses for 6–9% and Enteric Adenoviruses for 3–6% of all cases of viral gastroenteritides. In adults, Caliciviruses are the most frequent viral cause of diarrhoea. Thus, recently the significance of Caliciviruses for gastroenteric disease has been increasingly recognised.

Rotavirus Vaccines

Rotaviruses are the major cause of severe gastroenteritis among children of 55 years of age worldwide and also of acute diarrhoea in the young of many mammalian species (calves, piglets, lambs, fowls, etc.) causing 500000–600000 deaths each year. Rotaviruses spread via the oro-faecal route and infect the small intestine after oral ingestion. Virus entry is by receptor-mediated endocytosis or direct penetration. Therefore, development of vaccine candidates has been a major goal and has been in progress since the early 1980s.

Calicivirus Vaccines

This group of viruses was first recognized from an outbreak of gastroenteritis in an elementary school in Norwalk, Ohio, USA in 1968, affecting half of the students and teachers. Epidemic gastroenteritis produced by Caliciviruses is relatively mild. There is likely to be a large number of inapparent infections in early childhood. Outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis, which can be related to food or water-borne sources, occur frequently in recreational camps, hospitals, schools, cruise ships, nursing homes, etc.

Astrovirus Vaccines

Astroviruses are found in humans, lambs, calves, deer, piglets, mice, dogs and ducks, causing diarrhoea in most cases except for ducks, in which they cause acute hepatitis. Astroviruses are very species-specific. Human astrovirus infections are seen in infants and the elderly as endemic infections and occasionally as the cause of food-borne outbreaks of diarrhoea. The seasonal incidence peak is in the winter. Transmission is via the faecal–oral route, person-to-person contact and possibly fomites. Large food-borne outbreaks of astrovirus gastroenteritis have been recorded.

Enteric Adenovirus Vaccines

Adenovirus infections occur worldwide as epidemic, endemic or sporadic infections. Enteric adenoviruses are mainly endemic, but outbreaks in hospitals and boarding schools have been reported. Most infections are in infancy and early childhood. The incidence of enteric adenovirus infections is 4–7% in small children without a seasonal preference. In immunocompromised persons, adenoviruses can cause severe systemic disease. Different genomic subtypes within types 40 and 41 have been observed.

Epidemiology and symptoms of diarrhea.

Fig.1 Epidemiology and symptoms of diarrhea.

Creative Biolabs is pleased to share our cutting-edge technology and extensive expertise in the field of viral vaccine development and has focused on the vaccines for viruses associated acute diarrhoeal disease for years. We can offer high-quality customized services by adjusting protocols to meet even the most specific requirements. If you are interested in our services, please contact us for more details.

References

  1. Kosek M (2003). “The global burden of diarrhoeal disease, as estimated from studies published between 1992 and 2000”. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 81, 197-204.
  2. Parashar U D. (2003). “The global burden of diarrhoeal disease in children”. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 81(4), 236-236.

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