XCR1 Membrane Protein Introduction

Introduction of XCR1

XCR1 is encoded by XCR1 gene. It belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily which has been extensively studied during the past few decades because it offers numerous possibilities for therapeutic applications. XCR1 can increase the intracellular calcium ions level and is most closely related to RBS11 and the MIP1-alpha/RANTES receptor. XCL1-XCR1 axis plays an important role in the dendritic-cell-mediated cytotoxic immune response. It has also reported that XCL1 and XCR1 are constitutively expressed in the thymus and regulate the thymic establishment of self-tolerance and the generation of regulatory T cells.

Basic Information of XCR1
Protein Name Chemokine XC receptor 1
Gene Name XCR1
Aliases CCXCR1, GPR5
Organism Homo sapiens (Human)
UniProt ID P46094
Transmembrane Times 7
Length (aa) 333

Function of XCR1 Membrane Protein

XCR1, the only receptor for XCL1, is expressed on a subset of dendritic cell (DC). XCR1 mRNA is selectively expressed in “conventional” DCs, and not in resting or activated T cells, B cells, NK cells, or plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). XCR1 can be expressed in several tissues, such as spleen, lymph nodes, and paracortical areas. Many studies conducted on XCR1 demonstrate that it is involved in antigen cross-presentation and plays a vital role in many biological functions. Meanwhile, Recent studies show that XCR1 can be used for vaccination purposes owing to the exquisite specificity of XCR1 expression.

XCR1 Membrane Protein Introduction Fig.1 Chemokine-receptor interactions. (Moser, 2004)

Application of XCR1 Membrane Protein in Literature

  1. Zhang S.M., et al. XCL1-XCR1 pathway promotes trophoblast invasion at maternal-fetal interface by inducing MMP-2/MMP-9 activity. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2018, 80(3):e12990. PubMed ID: 29856101

    This article conducts a study on human first-trimester to identify the expression pattern of chemokine XCL1 and its receptor XCR1 by qRT-PCR. The result shows that XCR1 mRNA is highly expressed in the first-trimester decidua and villi, and XCL1-XCR1 chemokine pathway can help trophoblast invasion by increasing matrix metalloproteinase activity.

  2. Bird E.V., et al. A Novel Role for Lymphotactin (XCL1) Signaling in the Nervous System: XCL1 Acts via its Receptor XCR1 to Increase Trigeminal Neuronal Excitability. Neuroscience. 2018, 379, 334-349. PubMed ID: 29588250

    Authors investigate the expression level of XCL1-XCR1 axis in nociceptive processing. These results indicate that XCR1 can be a potential target for novel analgesics.

  3. Yanru W., et al. Transcriptomic analyses of chemokines reveal that down-regulation of XCR1 is associated with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018, 496(4), 1314-1321. PubMed ID: 29408492

    Authors in this group analyze the expression levels of 58 human chemokines/chemokine receptors in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The data show that the down-regulation of XCR1 promotes the development and progression of HCC.

  4. Deloizy C., et al. The anti-influenza M2e antibody response is promoted by XCR1 targeting in pig skin. Sci Rep. 2017, 7(1), 7639. PubMed ID: 28794452

    This article evaluates the immunogenicity of bivalent protein structures in pigs, which made of XCL1 fused to the external portion of the influenza virus M2 proton pump. The result suggests that M2e-targeting to XCR1 shows promises for a trans-species universal influenza vaccine strategy, possibly avoiding the use of classical adjuvants.

  5. Yang X.L., et al. The role of the chemokine receptor XCR1 in breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer (Dove Med Press). 2017, 9, 227-236. PubMed ID: 28408852

    This article tries to find the function of XCR1 in breast cancer cells. These results indicate that XCR1 can affect the biological characteristics of some special breast cancer cells through a complex signal transduction pathway.

XCR1 Preparation Options

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  1. Moser B, et al. (2004) Chemokines: role in inflammation and immune surveillance. Ann Rheum Dis. Suppl 2, ii84-ii89.

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