As is known, people around the entire world have been troubled by cancers since a long time, but there are few ways to treat them. People never stop their discoveries in finding new available methods. Nowadays, the rapid development of biotechnology has stepped into a new era, allowing scientists to discover more usable clinical applications. Recently, some scientists have raised a idea that virus can also be used in cancer treatment, namely fighting fire with fire.
So what kind of substance can be the “fire” ? It is the oncolytic virus. Oncolytic virus has been regarded as a promising approach in cancer treatment. In fact, advances in the research of genetic engineering can help scientists improve the oncolytic virus, aiming at different mutation types of cancer cells. And then it can fight against the cancer in a better condition. In addition, some relevant genes’ participation can strengthen the effect of oncolytic virus. For example, the virus can carry anti-tumor genes to the appropriate places, trying to enhance the capability in anti-tumor.
More specifically, the key of oncolytic virus is to break through the antiviral defense system of cancer cells because only in his way can it break the resistance. During the process of releasing oncolytic virus, the tumor cells will be destroyed first and then the tumor-associated antigen will be released into the blood, recognized by the immune cells. In this way, the immunity that against the tumor cells will be activated. It is the mechanism that virus antigen leads to carcinogenic cells’ destroying. However, in practice, among massive tumor types, the anti-tumor effect of oncolytic virus is not so consistent and efficient.
Based on oncolytic virus’ disadvantages, there are more efforts should be done to improve the current situation. As for different development and evolution stages of oncolytic virus and tumor cells, different micro-environments such as the immune system and blood circulation system own a series of complicated connections. The applications of virus have provided a common framework to scientists, which is significant in anti-tumor research. Maybe the future research on cancer treatment should be focused on the high affinity and efficiency of the virus.