Glioma

A glioma is a type of tumor that occurs in the brain or spine, which arises from glial cells. Based on the histological features, Gliomas are mainly classified into ependymomas (develop in ependymal cells), astrocytomas (develop in astrocytes), Oligodendrogliomas (develop in oligodendrocytes), brainstem glioma (develop in the brain stem), Optic nerve glioma (develop in or around the optic nerve) and mixed gliomas (develop in other different types of glia). Because the sites of affected central nervous system are various, the symptoms of gliomas are different. For instance, a glioma in the brain can result in headaches, vomiting, seizures, and cranial nerve disorders caused by increased intracranial pressure. A glioma developing in the optic nerve can cause visual loss. Treatment for gliomas depends on the location of cancer, the cell types, and the grade of disease. Normally, surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy with a combined approaches are used. Considering that these traditional methods have certain side effects, we provide CellRapeutic™ CAR products targeting glioma-specific antigens to assist your development of new treatments in clinical trials.

People classify Glioma into these types:

Ependymomas TOP


Overview

Ependymoma is a type of primary tumor which arises from the brain and the spine of central nervous system. It can occur in children and adults. Often, the location of ependymoma in children is intracranial, whereas in adults it is commonly diagnosed in spinal. The intracranial ependymoma always occurs in the fourth ventricle but rarely in the pelvic cavity. Once these tumors grow and fill the ventricle, they will block the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) through the brain and subsequently lead to the increased intracranial pressure.

Symptoms

The symptoms of ependymoma include severe headache, visual loss (caused by papilledema), vomiting, bilateral Babinski sign, drowsiness (following several hours of the above symptoms), gait change (rotation of feet when walking), impaction/constipation, back flexibility, neck pain, irritability, rapid and jerky eye movements and seizures. Moreover, symptoms of an ependymoma depend on the location and the size of the tumor.

Associated Antigen Target

Astrocytomas TOP


Overview

Astrocytoma is a type of cancer that occurs in the brain, which normally do not spread out of the brain and spinal cord and do not influence other organs. As the most common glioma, astrocytomas can arise from most parts of the brain and sometimes from the spinal cord. Based on how abnormal the cancer cells are and how quickly they grow, astrocytoma is graded on a scale of 1 to 4. There are several types of astrocytoma such as anaplastic astrocytomas (grade 3), glioblastomas (grade 4), diffuse astrocytomas (grade 2), pineal astrocytic tumors (any grade) and brain stem gliomas. Astrocytomas can develop in different age groups. However, most high grade astrocytomas occur in adults.

Symptoms

Common symptoms of astrocytoma in early stage include headaches, seizures, memory loss, feeling tired, listless and changes in behavior. Other symptoms depend partly on the location and size of the tumor.

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Oligodendrogliomas TOP


Overview

Oligodendrogliomas are a type of cancer which are considered to develop from the oligodendrocytes of the brain or from glial precursor cells. They occur primarily in young adults whose average age at diagnosis is 35. Sometimes, they can also occur in children. Oligodendrogliomas account for 9.4% of all primary brain and central nervous system tumors in adults. Many oligodendrogliomas contain tiny calcium deposits and can easily bleed.

Symptoms

Fifty to eighty percent of patients present the onset of seizure activity that occurs primarily in the frontal lobe. In addition, other common symptoms of oligodendroglioma include headaches combined with increased intracranial pressure, nausea or vomiting, weakness or loss of sensation in the arms and/or legs, speech, vision, or memory problems, or changes in behavior or sleepiness.

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Brainstem glioma TOP


Overview

A brainstem glioma is a cancerous glioma tumor which begins from the brain or spinal cord tissue and typically spread throughout the nervous system. Seventy-five percent of brainstem glioma occurs in children and young adults under the age of twenty, but it can also influence older adults. Brainstem gliomas account for about 10-20% of all brain tumors in children. The cause is still not clear. Any direct genetic link has not been found. The prognosis varies depending on the location and the size of the brainstem glioma.

Signs and symptoms

The common symptoms include but not limited to drooping of the face, double vision or not being able to close the eyelids, headache or headache that gets better after vomiting, nausea and vomiting, weakness and fatigue, seizures and balance problems. In summary, common clinical signs and physical exam performance such as constituting a triad of cranial nerve deficits, long tract signs, and ataxia (of trunk and limbs) are present.

Associated Antigen Target

Optic nerve glioma TOP


Overview

Optic nerve glioma (or optic glioma) which is a kind of brain tumor affects the optic nerve. Optic gliomas are often related to neurofibromatosis type 1 in thirty percent of patients. Most of the gliomas in children are benign and easily to be treated, while some optic nerve gliomas appear in adults, grow aggressively and quickly, and spread to elsewhere in the brain or even the body.

Symptoms

This type of glioma is usually found following disruptions of vision start. Optic nerve glioma can lead to partial or total vision loss, headaches, balance problems and eye twitching. Other symptoms include involuntary eye movements, like eyes darting back and forth, memory problems, drowsiness, loss of appetite, and stunted growth in kids.

Associated Antigen Target

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