Exosomes are small vesicles enriched with proteins, RNA, DNA, lipids, and metabolites. They demonstrate original lipids organized in a bilayer membrane, and the precise protein and lipid makeup of exosome membrane are required to obtain knowledge regarding their structures and functions. That is essential for understanding the primary mechanism of exosome formation, release, and activity. Creative Biolabs is a well-known biotechnical supplier equipped with high-end facilities and skillful staff that has perfectly accomplished an array of challenging projects of the exosome and its contents.
Fig.1 Respective density of extracellular vesicles recovered from viable cells and their distinction by lipidic markers. (Record, 2014)
Recently, more information has been collected about components of extracellular vesicles from various cell types and body fluids using proteomic, transcriptomic, lipidomic, and metabolomic methods. These studies have indicated that extracellular vesicles harbor specific molecules rather than random cellular components and offered valuable data on the underlying mechanisms involved in vesicular cargo-sorting and biogenesis.
Fig.2 Overall composition of extracellular vesicles. (Colombo, 2014)
The bioactivity of exosomes presents not only in their protein or RNA molecules but also in their lipidic contents. They display original lipids settled in a bilayer membrane and lipid carriers (e.g. fatty acid binding proteins) that they contain, and have the capability to vectorize lipids, including fatty acids, eicosanoids, and cholesterol. Furthermore, exosomes comprise lipid-related enzymes so that they can make up an autonomous unit of production of many bioactive lipids and their lipid compositions can be modified by in vitro manipulation. In contrast to parental cells, exosomes are enriched with cholesterol and sphingomyelin and their accumulation in cells might influence recipient cell homeostasis, making them potential biomarker for lipid-related diseases.
In addition to lipids, exosomes carry a broad range of metabolites that can be used for biomarker discovery. Some research found that obviously different populations of metabolites in PANC1 cells treated with TGF-β, a driver of cancer progression, compared to a control group, suggesting that metabolite profiling can be applied in distinguishing cellular states. Like exosomal lipids, exosomal metabolites also play an active role in the target cell and have been indicated to reprogram metabolic mechanism upon uptake by cancer cells, facilitating growth.
Currently, exosomes provide the first view of a therapeutic vesicle whose lipid composition and organization would be a start to study mechanisms of liposomes, and then lay a foundation for in-depth lipidomics research. During last years, lipidomics and metabolomic have gradually become an emerging field, since genomics and proteomics don’t bring expected responses in the perspective to cure an array of pathologies. In Creative Biolabs, we have overcome the condition of lack of analytical approaches in the past and already made use of powerful facilities to analyze the complexity of lipids and metabolites, such as liquid chromatography (LC), mass spectrometry (MS) or LC coupled MS equipment. All you need is just to send us your samples or purified exosomes, and subsequently, a report with identifications, mass/charge ratios, and differential analysis will be received.
With the help from Creative Biolbabs, you can identify and quantify lipids and metabolite in exosomes quickly and accurately. Sophisticated shotgun method and targeted assays for lipidomics and metabolomics research would promote biomarker discovery and drug development to the next level. Besides, there are other mature platforms as below can be used to isolate, purify and study exosomes. If there is no service you interest, please don’t hesitate to contact us for more details.