With leading-edge technologies and years of experience in the exosome field, Creative Biolabs can efficiently isolate high-quality exosomes from a variety of cell types and multiple biological fluid sources, such as B cells, dendritic cells, tumor cells, plasma, urine, serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), ascites, saliva, and plants.
In order to facilitate the research and application of exosome, the most important step is to isolate them from a wide spectrum of cellular debris and interfering components. Based on our well-established technologies and experienced scientists, we can reliably and reproducibly isolate exosomes from almost any biofluid.
Table 1 Summary of various types of exosomes that can be isolated.
||Exosomes are secreted by most cell types. We provide a range of services of exosomes isolation from multiple cell types, including B cells, dendritic cells and mast cells of the immune system, as well as tumor cells.|
||Exosomes secreted by different cell types can be released into plasma. These vesicles reflect the native property of original cells. We also provide service for exosomes isolation from plasma.|
||Exosomes secreted by different cell types are also present in urine and can isolate from urine based on our advanced isolation technology.|
||Exosomes contain both proteins and the nucleic acid of origin cells and can be released into the serum. We can isolate all size of exosomes to make your project success.|
||CSF is an accessible body fluid which provides an overview of the pathological state of the central nervous system (CNS) malignancies. It is regarded as a route for the potential seeding of invasive cells of CNS tumors. Researches have been shown that CSF-derived exosomes is a promising source of biomarkers that not only has the ability to reflect the genetic diversity within a tumor at any time, but also enables the longitudinal measurement to monitor genetic changes in cancer treatment without repeated tissue biopsies.|
||Exosomes have been found in ascites fluid. The ascites-derived exosomes from patients with cancer can mirror the pathological state of tumor.|
||Recent studies have reported that saliva exosomes can be extracted using ultracentrifugation. Due to its easy accessibility, saliva has become a potential source of exosomal biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic assessments.|
||Plants have revealed to secrete exosomes containing the small RNAs, or sRNAs, to fight back against plant pathogens. Our team can help you attain high-quality plant-derived exosomes.|
||Follicular fluid usually represents the cell information bank exchanged during the development of the follicle, thereby providing a suitable sample for the diagnosis of oocyte quality. Several studies have reported the presence of exosomes in follicular fluid of humans, cattle and horses.|
||At present, with the in-depth study of exosomes, more and more marine organisms have been proved to have the ability to produce exosomes. We also have successful experience in the isolation of exosomes from marine organisms.|
||Exosomes isolated from interstitial tissue (such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord tissue) have the characteristics of authenticity, exclusiveness, richness and creativity. High quality exosomes can be used for tumor, development, aging and immune research based on high-throughput sequencing, mass spectrometry and qPCR.|
Differential ultracentrifugation is regarded as the gold standard method for exosome isolation. This method allows us to isolate exosomes and membrane particles based on their density and size differences from the fluid phase. However, this approach has several drawbacks such as highly labor-intensive, time-consuming, a large amount of starting material and low output. Now, ultracentrifugation often used in combination with sucrose density gradients or sucrose cushions to float the relatively low-density exosomes away from other vesicles and particles. And this strategy can produce high-quality and high-purity exosomes within 30 hours.
Fig.1 Schematic representation of isolating exosomes by differential ultracentrifugation. (Li, 2017)
One of the popular size-based exosome isolation techniques is ultrafiltration that can isolate exosomes based on their defined molecular weight or size using membrane filters. Ultrafiltration is less time-consuming than ultracentrifugation and does not require special equipment. Another size-based separation technique applied to exosome isolation is HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) which requires dedicated equipment.
Fig.2 Schematic illustration of sequential filtration. (Li, 2017)
The water-excluding polymers such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) can tie up water molecules and force less soluble components out of solution. Hence, samples are incubated with a precipitation solution containing PEG, thus the precipitate containing exosomes is isolated by means of either low-speed centrifugation or filtration. This method is easy to use and does not require any specialized equipment.
A large number of proteins and receptors are present on the membrane of exosomes, which provides an excellent opportunity to develop highly specific techniques for the isolation of exosomes by tapping on immunoaffinity interactions between those proteins (antigens) and their antibodies, and specific interactions between the receptors and ligands. Now affinity-based capture techniques have been developed for the isolation of exosomes.
The rapid development of microfabrication technology has provided a valuable opportunity for the preparation of microfluid-based exosomes, which can rapidly and effectively separate exosomes and make use of the physical and biochemical characteristics of microscale exosomes. Except for the common approaches like size, density, and immunoaffinity, innovative sorting mechanisms such as acoustic, electrophoretic and electromagnetic manipulations can be implemented. With the use of such devices, significant reductions in sample volume, reagent consumption, and isolation time are expected.
Fig.3 Examples of microfluidic approaches for exosome isolation. (Contreras-Naranjo, 2017)
Creative Biolabs promises to provide high-quality and low-cost exosomes for global clients. We also believe that our service will make your project achieve twice the result with half the effort. If you have any demands in exosome isolation, please don’t hesitate to contact us for more information.