Vaccine development is a long and complicated process, always requiring over ten years. Vaccines can be prophylactic or therapeutic. A prophylactic vaccine is to prevent a future infection by a natural pathogen, while a therapeutic vaccine is always against cancer. Vaccines are often dead or inactivated native pathogen or pathogen analog. Here, we give a brief introduction to the applications of exosomes in vaccine development. Besides, to aid in exosome research, Creative Biolabs is offering a comprehensive array of exosome-related services to help the vaccine development.
A desirable vaccine should be safe, stable, and molecularly defined. Several types of novel vaccines in development include dendritic cell vaccine, recombinant vector vaccine, DNA vaccine, and peptide vaccine.
Dendritic Cell Vaccine — A dendritic cell vaccine combines antigens with dendritic cells. As the dendritic cell is an antigen presenting cell, it can directly present the combined antigens to the immune cells, thus initiating an immune response. This type of vaccine has shown positive effects on brain tumors treatment, and its effectiveness were also studied in malignant melanoma.
Recombinant Vector Vaccine — The recombinant vector vaccine is created by combining DNA of the target pathogen and the physiology of one micro-organism. This type of vaccine is used against complex diseases, such as the RVSV-ZEBOV vaccine is used to combat Ebola in Congo.
DNA Vaccine — DNA vaccine is created from the DNA of pathogens. The recommended mechanism is the insertion of pathogens DNA into a human or other mammalian cells. The immune system will then recognize the proteins expressed and initiate an immune response against these proteins and protein-expressing cells. DNA vaccines have potent advantages over other vaccines as they are stable and easily manufactured and stored.
Peptide Vaccine — A peptide vaccine is a specific peptide that serves as a pathogen to immunize an organism. Peptide vaccine is always mimic and synthetic naturally occurring proteins from pathogens.
Cell-derived Exosomes-based Vaccines
Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles that can be produced by many cell types, including dendritic cell, tumor cell, ascitic cell. Creative Biolabs offers a full range of exosome-related services for customers to facilitate the research of exosomes for vaccine development.
Dendritic Cell-derived Exosomes-based Vaccines
Dendritic cell-derived exosomes have MHC I, MHC II, and costimulatory molecules expressed on their surface, which makes them act as potent vaccine if synthetic peptides or some interesting pathogens epitope are combined to the MHC I and MHC II.
Tumor Cell-derived Exosomes-based Vaccines
Tumor cell-derived exosomes express membrane-associated tumor-specific molecules, making them potential vaccine for cancer therapies via strengthening the immune response aginst cancer.
Ascitic Cell-derived Exosomes-based Vaccines
In patients with ovarian cancer and some other cancer, ascitic fluids are the tumor exosome sources. Ascitic cell-derived exosomes may also carry tumor-specific antigens, which makes it a potential choice to develop new vaccine.
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Pitt, J. M.; et al. Dendritic cell–derived exosomes as immunotherapies in the fight against cancer. The Journal of Immunology. 2014, 193(3): 1006-1011.
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