Stem cells are a type of biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells. In the field of regenerative medicine, stem cells transplantation has been indicated an effective therapeutic approach that replaces lost tissue with new cellular material or facilitates the regeneration of damaged or diseased tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that exosomes secreted by stem cells also play similar biological activity to the stem cells themselves. Exosomes derived from stem cells can deliver and transfer some beneficial outputs of stem cells including proteins, bioactive lipid and nucleic acid cargo to neighboring diseased or injured cells, thereby promoting the activation of regenerative programs. This supports the paracrine hypothesis that stem cells therapy in regenerative medicine is based on exosomes secreted by the stem cells rather than the stem cells themselves.
Fig.1 Schematic representation of EV-mediated bidirectional exchange of exRNAs between stem and injured cells. (Camussi, 2014)
Stem cell-derived exosomes have now been identified and separated from cell culture supernatants of several cell types with known therapeutic potential, including mesenchymal stromal (MSC), bone marrow mononuclear stem cells (BM-MNC), and neural stem cells (hNSCs). Increasing studies have demonstrated therapeutic effects by MSC-derived exosomes on wound healing and tissue repair in various physiological systems. MSC-derived exosomes can mediate their functions on tissue repair/regeneration via the promotion of angiogenesis. Exosomes derived from human MSCs at the late stages of osteogenic differentiation can induce the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of recipient homotypic MSCs. Exosomes derived from MSCs also play critical roles in cardiovascular regeneration, which might be potential therapeutic interventions for treatments of cardiovascular diseases. Several preclinical studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of stem cell-derived exosomes on ischaemic tissue repair and myocardial regeneration. Furthermore, MSC-derived exosomes have been proved as potent as parent stem cells in the regeneration of liver injury models such as liver fibrosis, acute liver injury, hepatocellular carcinoma.
Fig.2 Exosomes derived from stem cells have proposed for cardiac disease therapy. (Yuan, 2018)
Creative Biolabs, specialized in exosome research, is a world-leading services provider of exosome-related services. Our scientists with years of experience in exosome research have established a powerful and versatile technical platform, which allows us to offer comprehensive exosome-related services for customers all over the world. Please contact our technical services to discuss your project and create a custom quote.