Creative Biolabs has produced an unparalleled system for rapid identification of ubiquitination-specific antibodies with our excellent High-Affi™ technology. Our ubiquitination-specific antibodies are purified by protein A or affinity chromatography, which can detect monoubiquitin, multi-monoubiquitin, homotypic polyubiquitin (K6, K11, K27, K29, K33, K48, K63, and linear-linked) and heterotypic polyubiquitin (mixed or branched linkages) with high specificity and affinity.
Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification where ubiquitin, a small (8.5 kDa) regulatory protein, is attached to a substrate protein via an isopeptide bond. This process is carried out in three main steps (activation, conjugation, and ligation) by ubiquitin-activating enzymes (E1s), ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s), and ubiquitin ligases (E3s), respectively. The ubiquitin modification has three general layouts: monoubiquitination, multi-monoubiquitination, and polyubiquitination (homotypic or heterotypic). The ubiquitination bonds are always formed with one of the seven lysine residues of the ubiquitin molecule. In a few rare cases, nonlysine residues have been identified as ubiquitination targets, such as cysteine, threonine, and serine. As with other PTMs, ubiquitination is reversible. Ubiquitins were removed from target proteins by deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) or ubiquitin-specific proteases (USPs). The reversible nature of ubiquitination can affect proteins in many ways. It can signal for their degradation via the proteasome, alter their cellular location, affect their activity, and promote or prevent protein interactions. Ubiquitination also interacts with other PTMs. Abnormal ubiquitin pathway may lead to many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington's disease (HD). It also causes the pathogenesis of several other diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes.
Fig. 1 Forms of ubiquitination. (Komander 2009)
Using ubiquitination-specific antibodies can identify abnormal accumulations of proteins inside cells, such as neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body in Parkinson's disease. Creative Biolabs has extensive experience in the screening of monoclonal or polyclonal ubiquitination-specific antibodies with phage display technology or hybridoma technology. scFv, Fab or whole IgG can be produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the ubiquitin protein. Appropriate anti-ubiquitin antibodies for research by isotype, epitope, application and species reactivity are available for customers.
Creative Biolabs is an expert in developing monoclonal antibodies with high affinity and specificity of various post-translational modifications (e.g. phosphorylation, glycosylation, methylation, acetylation, and ubiquitination). We are pleased to meet the needs of our customers in the field of research, clinical diagnostics and industrial manufacture.
In addition to the ubiquitination-specific antibody, Creative Biolabs also provides a comprehensive list of PTM-specific antibody production services of your choice.