Creative Biolabs provides highly specific and sensitive site-specific anti-formylated protein antibodies based on our excellent High-Affi™ technology. These antibodies are produced by immunizing mice a synthetic formyl peptide and purified by affinity chromatography. They do not cross-react with monomethylated, dimethylated, acetylated and other acylated peptides.
Formylation is a newly found post-translational modification (PTM) on lysine. Formylation of lysine is also a reversible and dynamic process which is widely distributed from prokaryote to eukaryote, although the regulatory enzymes are still unknown. Mass spectrometry (MS) proved that core and linker histones are modified by formyl on multiple lysine residues. In core histones, formylation was taken place on lysine residues involved in the organization of nucleosomal particles that are frequently methylated and acetylated, such as lys5, lys116, lys120 of H2B and lys91 of H4. While, in linker histones, multiple formylation sites were mapped with important functions in DNA binding.
Lysine formylation in chromosomal proteins is quite abundant, suggesting that it may impact on epigenetic mechanisms governing chromatin function. More recently, scientists have demonstrated that lysine formylation can arise from oxidative damage of DNA. On the condition of oxidative stress, lysine acetylation can be quickly outcompeted by the formation of lysine formylation due to the high reactivity of formylphosphate species. In histones, the level of lysine formylation can increase several-fold upon oxidative stress. Thus, lysine formylation is important for understanding mechanisms of chromatin regulation, which includes DNA binding, DNA repair, chromatin condensation, and epigenetic regulation. Meanwhile, dysregulation of lysine formylation may cause many diseases such as cancer.
Fig. 1. Formylation of lysine can compete with acetylation.
Methylation and acetylation of lysine residues are among the most frequently described modifications in histones. These modifications have been studied in detail. However, very little is known about lysine formylation. Furthermore, the relationships between formylation and other PTMs are still in its long distance.
Antibodies are the most important tools in studying PTMs, especially in the identification of modified sites and the discovery of modified types. Creative Biolabs has years of experience in antibody discovery and production. Meanwhile, many Ph.D. level scientists devote themselves to studying of PTMs which including both antibody discovery and modification analysis. The products supplied by us are tailored according to customer requirements with high affinity and specificity.
Creative Biolabs can provide a comprehensive list of PTM-specific antibody production services of your choice.