Over the past decades, the three antibody generation strategies, chemical conjugation, hybrid hybridomas and genetic engineering have resulted in over 67-70 different formats of bispecific antibodies. These BsAbs have been widely researched in diagnostic and therapeutic fields. We can provide BsAb engineering service to adjust the properties of BsAbs such as valency, size, half-life, flexibility, etc., to meet the specific requirements.
Bispecific IgGs remains the general size and structure of a normal IgG and thus such BsAbs antibodies have the most similar biophysical properties to a regular IgG. Bispecific IgGs are artificial molecules which cannot be produced by normal B lymphocyte.
Appended IgGs are a group of bi-or multi-specific molecules, of which conventional IgGs are appended with one or more additional antigen-binding units. The antigen-binding moieties may be Fab, scFv, Fv, single domain antibodies or engineered protein scaffolds.
BsAb fragments are combination of antigen-binding units, such as Fv, scFv, sdAbs and Fab, with or without some constant domains. They have smaller size and shorter serum half-life. In immunotherapy, they possess better tissue penetrating in immunotherapy.
Bispecific fusion proteins are generated by linking other proteins to the antibody or antibody fragments to add more functionality or specificity. The source of antibody fragments can be derived from scFv or monospecific Fab dimer.
Bispecific antibody conjugates are formed by utilizing chemical conjugation of antibodies or antibody fragments. Based on different starting materials and various conjugation strategies, bispecific fragments, full-length antibodies or combinations can be generated.