Recently, various nanomaterials are used in order to develop nanotechnology-based rapid diagnostic tests, such as quantum dots (QDs), metallic nanoparticles, silica nanospheres, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and magnetic nanoparticles. This novel nano diagnostic approach will further develop point-of-care (POC) diagnostics.
Many of the currently available IVD tools are limited by their limit and sensitivity of detection. Therefore, it is important to develop new sensing techniques with improved detection performance and expand the diagnostic capability by advanced nanomaterials with trying different signal patterns.
Researchers have developed microfluidic devices in order to provide inexpensive and facile detection of diseases. The majority of microfluidic devices that have been already developed work by sensing specific biomarkers, human cell types, bacteria, or viruses.
The high-resolution rear camera of smartphone can be transformed into a potential POC reader to detect colorimetric, ﬂuorescence, luminescence, SPR, and other optical signals.
Nanobodies labelled with a gamma- or positron-emitting radionuclide can be used to quantitatively image the biodistribution of the radiolabelled-antibody using whole body Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) or Positron Emission Tomography (PET) respectively. Different nanobody conjugation methods are introduced.
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