In the past few decades, molecular diagnostics has made great efforts to develop rapid multi analysis methods. New diagnostic techniques have been developed due to advances in the sequencing of the human genome and all encoded proteins. Among various technological solutions for diagnostic applications, array technology has attracted the attention of a wide range of research groups and industries, and greatly affected the methods of disease discovery and genome understanding.
The microarray consists of a series of ordered probes, which include nucleic acids, nucleic acid analog (such as peptide nucleic acids (PNA), locked nucleic acid (LNA)), proteins, carbohydrates, tissues, cells and polymers. Most arrays currently in use contain hundreds to thousands of probes. The value of this technology is that it allows highly parallel measurement and has the advantages of high-throughput, miniaturization and high speed. This has led to important applications of microarray technology in the development of medical research, drug resistance, pharmacogenomics and molecular diagnosis.
Fig.1 Overall experimental steps in microarray technology. (Ventimiglia, 2013)
Among all kinds of in vitro diagnostic (IVD) methods, array technology is the method that provides the highest throughput for the determination of many analytes in relatively few samples, and is listed as one of the most important detection technology modules. Creative Biolabs provides a variety of IVD testing services based on array technology. In summary, there are two main parts:
The liquid array method involves capture probes immobilized on beads, which can be sorted using a flow cytometer. Liquid array diagnosis uses short DNA duplex, in which one oligonucleotide is labeled with a fluorophore and the other is labeled with a quenched molecule in the presence of target DNA. The novelty of this method is to detect multiple fluorescence quenching events in a single tube complex reaction by combining multiple double melting curves and multiple detection channels on qPCR.
Fig.2 Liquid-phase microarray. (Buchan, 2014)
The solid array consists of synthetic oligonucleotides or peptides (capture probes) immobilized on a solid substrate (such as a glass slide or nitrocellulose membrane). The number of unique capture probes on a single array can range from 100 on a low-density printed array to >1 million on an in situ-synthesized high-density array. Due to the large number of probes, these arrays are most commonly used for whole-genome expression profiling or other whole-protein group comparisons.
Fig.3 Solid-phase microarray. (Buchan, 2014)
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