IVD antibodies are widely used in immunology methods such as immunonephelometry and sandwich ELISA for the diagnosis of a variety of diseases including liver diseases. With many years of experience in the field of IVD antibody development, Creative Biolabs is proud to offer the most comprehensive and reliable IVD antibody development services that target different stages of liver diseases.
Introduction of Liver Failure
Liver failure is a life-threatening condition where the liver is unable to perform its normal function due to large parts of damage. There are mainly three types of liver failure: acute, chronic, and acute-on-chronic liver failure. Acute liver failure (ALF) is the rapid deterioration of liver function that results in coagulopathy and encephalopathy in a previously healthy individual. ALF often affects young people and carries a very high mortality. Chronic liver failure (CLF) occurs where there is deterioration in liver function superimposed on the chronic liver disease. Usually, CLF occurs in the context of cirrhosis, the causes of which include such as excessive alcohol intake, hepatitis B or C, and hereditary and metabolic causes. Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ALCF) is an acute deterioration of liver function in patients with chronic liver disease and thus is clinically distinguished from ALF. Collectively, ALCF is characterized by acute decompensation (e.g., ascites, gastrointestinal bleeding, encephalopathy), more or more organ failures, and poor short-term prognosis.
Fig 1. Schematic representation of the presumed pathophysiology of acute-on-chronic liver failure. (Verbeke, 2011)
The Diagnosis of Liver Failure
Untreated liver failure has a poor outcome and so rapid diagnosis and management are vital if the patient is to survive. The diagnosis of liver failure is made by combining information from history and physical examination as well as a battery of tests including laboratory tests, radiological studies, and biopsies. History such as previous illness, drug or alcohol intake, and family history of liver disease needs to be evaluated first. Then, physical examination of all parts of the body can provide clues to the cause and extent of liver diseases. Laboratory examination mainly covers blood testing and ascitic fluid. Complete blood examination using parameters such as serum enzymes, levels of albumin and bilirubin, and complete blood count are helpful to provide confirmatory findings. Imaging and radiographical studies are also frequently used tools to detect and confirm liver diseases. These include ultrasonogram of the abdomen, CT scan, MRI, and ERCP, which are useful noninvasive methods to look at the liver tissues directly for clues regarding pathology.
Liver biopsy, as a gold standard for diagnosis of different liver diseases, however, is not always necessary for the diagnosis of liver failure. A good example is the diagnosis of ALF, where biopsy should only be performed on very rare occasions as it frequently yields little extra information (or at least, additional information that would change the management), is time-consuming (delaying definitive treatment) and can be hazardous as the risk of bleeding or capsular rupture is high. Consequently, if the clinical, laboratory and radiologic evidence are sufficient for diagnosis, there's no need to perform a biopsy.
With the rapid evolvement of IVD market, antibodies with high sensitivity and low cross-reactivity are becoming increasingly important for the in vitro diagnosis of various diseases and infections, and they can provide important information for both of their diagnosis and treatment. Creative Biolabs has been focusing on this fascinating field and we are proud to share this expertise in IVD antibody development and manufacturing with our clients to support their studies, and to improve human health. Contact us to experience the value of our expert services.
Our IVD antibody development services target the following diagnostic markers of liver failure:
For lab research use only.