Cardiovascular Diseases

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a general term for conditions affecting the heart or blood vessels. It's usually associated with a build-up of fatty deposits inside the arteries, known as atherosclerosis, and an increased risk of blood clots. It can also be associated with damage to arteries in organs such as the brain, heart, kidneys, and eyes. The risk factors for CVD include high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes mellitus, lack of exercise, obesity, among others. It is one of the main causes of death and disability but it can often largely be prevented with a healthy lifestyle.

Diagnosis of Cardiovascular Diseases

Cardiovascular Diseases

The diagnosis of CVDs begins with the history and physical examination of suspected patients. Then, an array of laboratory tests and imaging studies can be performed to confirm or exclude the diagnosis. Blood tests based on immunoassay platforms are used to detect the risk factors for CVDs. Electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, cardiac computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are non-invasive tests that can be performed to evaluate the function of coronary arteries, assess blood flow to the heart, and look at heart function. Besides, cardiac catheterization is a gold standard conducted to assess whether blockages are present.

The Use of Cardiac Biomarkers for CVD Prediction, Diagnosis, and Prognosis

Cardiac biomarkers are protein-based molecules used as indicators of biologic state for risk prediction, diagnosis, and prognosis of CVDs. Various biomarkers are available to prognose and diagnose CVDs, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL), C-reactive protein (CRP), myoglobin, creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme (CK-MB), and cardiac troponin I (cTnI). With the development of technologies, new biomarkers that could facilitate more authentic and fast diagnosis of CVDs have been discovered, such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) and lipocalin-2.

Detection of these biomarkers largely relies on the use of monoclonal antibodies and immunoassay platforms due to their specificity and precision. Immunoassays (e.g., lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA), enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA)) use antibodies directed against the protein of interest to quantitatively measure or qualitatively detect the antigens present in all kinds of samples. The use of reliable cardiac biomarkers for point-of-care (POC) testing facilitates quick results in emergent situation.

IVD Antibody & Immunoassay Development Services Provided by Creative Biolabs

Development of immunoassays is a time-consuming, resource-intensive effort. Obtaining high-quality antibodies with high specificity and sensitivity is of great importance for this purpose. As a well-recognized antibody service provider, Creative Biolabs is happy to assist in your in vitro diagnostic (IVD) antibody development as well as immunoassay development project. We are experienced in generating high-quality antibody (pairs) targeting various cardiac biomarkers. Moreover, we have well-established platforms for providing one-stop diagnostic immunoassay development services to global clients. Our expertise lies in different assay formats and detection methods. Specifically, we offer contract development services including:

Workflow for production of an Immunoassay

Features of Our IVD Antibody Development Services

  • Our repertoire includes both traditional and novel cardiac biomarkers
  • A specialized technical team and abundant experience in antibody development, engineering, and characterization
  • State-of-the-art techniques and short turnaround time
  • Services are tailored to meet the exact needs of our valued IVD clients.

Please feel free to contact us for more information and a formal quote.


  1. Upadhyay, R. K. (2015). “Emerging risk biomarkers in cardiovascular diseases and disorders.” Journal of lipids, 2015.

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