The cardiovascular system, also called the circulatory system, is the system that moves blood throughout the human body.

The parts of the cardiovascular system include a network of blood vessels:
Arteries: The blood vessels that take blood away from the heart
Veins: Blood vessels that return blood to the heart
Capillaries: Very small vessels that lie between the arteries and veins
And the heart, which is a muscular pump with four chambers inside: the right and left atria and the right and left ventricles. Those four chambers allow the heart to pump blood through the following two circulatory pathways:
Systemic circulation: Takes oxygen-rich blood to the tissues and organs of the body
Pulmonary circulation: Takes oxygen-depleted blood to the lungs and oxygen-rich blood back to the heart again

Blood contains nutrients from the foods you eat and oxygen from the air you breathe. It also contains hormones and cells that fight infection. The blood also transports waste products to various places that then promptly remove the waste from the body.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a general term for conditions affecting the heart or blood vessels. It's usually associated with a build-up of fatty deposits inside the arteries – known as atherosclerosis – and an increased risk of blood clots. It can also be associated with damage to arteries in organs such as the brain, heart, kidneys and eyes. CVD is one of the main causes of death and disability, but it can often largely be prevented with a healthy lifestyle.


Types and Diagnosis

There are many different types of CVD. The list of diseases that fall into the cardiovascular category and the biomarkers as well as the related IVD antibodies used for diagnosis are provided below by Creative Biolabs:

Coronary artery disease (CAD): a narrowing of the coronary arteries, the blood vessels that supply oxygen and blood to the heart. It is a major cause of illness and death.
Myocardial infarction: where the blood flow to the heart muscle is suddenly blocked. It's the death of a segment of heart muscle caused by the loss of blood supply.
Myocardial ischemia: occurs when blood flow to your heart is reduced, preventing it from receiving enough oxygen. It can damage your heart muscle, reducing its ability to pump efficiently.
Heart failure: where the heart is unable to pump blood around the body properly. It's a serious condition for which there is usually no cure.

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