As a leading CRO of antibody generation and development, Creative Biolabs offers application-specific antibody development services to global clients. With experienced scientists and advanced technology, we have established a series of high-quality in vitro diagnostic (IVD) antibody development services against biomarkers of different diseases. Here, we introduce our IVD antibody development services for PAPP-A marker.
Pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), a large zinc-binding pregnancy protein, plays as an enzyme, especially the metalloproteinases, and also serves a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. It was firstly discovered as a circulating protein in the serum of women in advanced stages of gestation. It formed in pregnancy serum as a heterotetrameric 2:2 complex with the proform of eosinophil major basic protein (proMBP), producing an about 500 kDa and named PAPP-A/proMBP. PAPP-A is composed of three the lin-notch repeats (LNR) and five short consensus repeats (SCR), as well as a putative Zn binding site. According to the results of in situ hybridization, placenta is the major site of PAPP-A and proMBP synthesis during pregnancy. PAPP-A has been widely used in prenatal genetic screening and researches of atherosclerosis.
Figure 1. Schematic diagram of local control of IGF signaling by cell-associated PAPP-A. PAPP-A is a secreted enzyme which connected with heparin-like proteoglycans on the surface of the secreting and neighboring cells. (Conover, C. A. 2012)
PAPP-A Marker of Coronary Artery Disease
Identification of patients with CAD is a main challenge for the clinicians at the emergency unit. Recently, researches have proven that pregnancy related PAPP-A is a novel marker in the category of biomarkers of inflammation and plaque instability. PAPPA exists in unstable atherosclerotic plaques, and circulating levels are increased in acute coronary syndromes (ACD) which may stand for the instability of the plaques. Combination of pro major basic protein (MBP) with PAPP-A molecule is prevented on account of oxidative stress in the microenvironment of the plaque. It has also suggested that PAPPA may be a potential biomarker of acute myocardial infarction and CAD. The increased levels of PAPP-A are discovered in unstable plaques than in stable plaques. Besides, many researches have indicated that increased levels of PAPP-A independently predicts the risk of an ischaemic event.
Figure 2. Schematic diagram of proteolytic activity of PAPP-A in humans and relationship between PAPP-A, IGF and IGFBP-4. PAPP-A is a promising marker for the diagnosis of CAD. (Shiefa, S. 2013)
PAPP-A Marker of First Trimester Screening
Prenatal screening for trisomies on account of the analysis of biomarkers in maternal serum has turn into an essential part of obstetric practice in a number of countries. First trimester screening is an assay which provides early information about a baby's risk of certain chromosomal situations, such as extra sequences of chromosome 18 (trisomy 18) and Down syndrome (trisomy 21). Studies have indicated that PAPP-A is a potent marker for the first trimester maternal serum screening of Down syndrome, patau syndrome and Edward syndrome. And their results showed that all three trisomies are connected with raised maternal age, raised fetal nuchal translucency and induced PAPP-A. In addition, low blood levels of PAPP-A in women at 8 to 14 weeks of gestation reveal a raised risk of trisomy 21, preeclampsia, stillbirth and growth restriction.
IVD Antibody Development Service Targeting PAPP-A Marker
IVD antibodies are extensively used in immunodiagnostic tools for disease screening and therapeutic monitoring. Through our role as a leading antibody service provider, Creative Biolabs is well-positioned to develop high-quality anti-PAPP-A antibodies. Besides antibody generation, Creative Biolabs also offers diagnostic immunoassay development services, including feasibility analysis, assay design, assay protocol establishment, assay optimization, and kit production.
Creative Biolabs has successfully completed numerous IVD antibody generation and development projects for clients across the globe. If you are interested in our IVD antibody discovery services, please contact us for more details.
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