Creative Biolabs is a well-recognized expert in the field of antibody generation and production. Especially, we have launched a series of in vitro diagnostic (IVD) antibody development services for different infections and diseases. Scientific progress has resulted in the discovery of novel disease biomarkers to fulfill the need for a quicker, more specific and more accurate diagnosis. Particularly, we provide IVD antibody development services against the sFlt-1 marker.

Soluble Fms-like Tyrosine Kinase-1 (sFlt-1)

Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), also known as sVEGFR-1, is a tyrosine kinase protein enables to prevent proteins which induce blood vessel growth. It is a splice variant of the VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) receptor Flt1 with the absence of the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, serving as a strong VEGF and PlGF (placental growth factor) antagonist. sFlt-1 is expressed in a wide range of tissues, such as placenta, macrophages, and endothelial cells and is regarded as one of the most potential serum biomarkers identified to date. It combines and decreases free circulating levels of the proangiogenic factors VEGF and PlGF, however, the biological functions are lamely understood. sFlt-1 levels have been identified to be positively connected with the patients of CAD and the angiographic severity of CAD. Some researches have discovered quickly raising levels of sFlt-1 to restraint placental development, causing pregnancy complications. Besides, increased levels of sFlt-1 have been found in the second and third trimesters among women with pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia contrasted to women with common pregnancies. It is documented that sFlt-1 levels are higher in patients with complicated-sepsis that evolve to septic shock, suggesting a potential role of sFlt-1 in the sepsis genesis and severity.

sFlt1 acts as endogenous inhibitor of VEGF signaling through catching free-VEGF. Fig.1. sFlt1 acts as endogenous inhibitor of VEGF signaling through catching free-VEGF. VEGF signaling is accurately regulated by endogenous molecules, containing sFlt1. (Xu, 2012)

sFlt-1 Marker of Coronary Artery Disease

CAD is also named as heart disease, which is induced by the improvement of fatty deposits called plaque in the blood vessels of the heart. Atherosclerosis is the primary pathophysiological pathway causing CAD and is affected by inflammation and thereby cytokines and inflammatory messengers. It has proven that plasma levels of both sFlt-1 and PlGF are remarkably increased in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and it seems that sFlt-1 is a promising marker for the diagnosis of ACS. Besides, the vascular marker sFlt-1 is independently connected with measures of heart failure severity, such as NYHA and BNP. In addition, sFlt-1 is able to offer entire independent prognostic information in patients displaying symptoms suggestive of acute myocardial infarction.

The picture shows the normal heart and artery as well as the artery with plaque buildup. Fig.2 The picture shows the normal heart and artery as well as the artery with plaque buildup.

sFlt-1 Marker of Preeclampsia

Preeclampsia (PE) is a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity all over the world. This disease presents on two phases: unnatural implantation of the placenta results in damaged placental blood flow, which in turn leads to the secretion of a pivotal placental substance into the maternal circulation. Clinical diagnosis and identification of PE are generally on account of the detection of non-specific signs and symptoms, primarily hypertension and proteinuria. Researches have indicated that the maternal serum sFlt1 concentration is notably improved in women with preeclampsia and is slightly raised long before clinical onset. And it is accepted that detection of sFlt1 enables the early identification of at-risk women, and sFlt1 is a strong marker for the measurement of women at risk of developing preeclampsia among patients revealing gestational or chronic hypertension.

sFlt1 and soluble endoglin (sEng) lead to endothelial dysfunction by resisting VEGF and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling. Fig.3 sFlt1 and soluble endoglin (sEng) lead to endothelial dysfunction by resisting VEGF and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling. In pregnant women, sFlt1 binds and restrains VEGF and PlGF in the circulation. A high sFlt1: PlGF ratio possibly leads to endothelial dysfunction and the development of preeclampsia.

sFlt-1 Marker of Sepsis

Sepsis is currently defined as a life-threatening and overwhelming dysfunction caused by a deregulated host response to infection that can lead to tissue damage, organ failure, and death. The symptoms of sepsis usually include fever, increased breathing rate, elevated heart rate, confusion, and edema. Depending on the severity, the disease showed three courses: sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock, which is a serious medical condition characterized with dangerously low blood pressure and abnormalities in cellular metabolism. It is acknowledged that the circulating level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) presents time-dependent increase in sepsis, whereas overexpression of sFlt-1 can bind VEGF attenuating its circulating levels and counteracting the effect of endotoxemia on cardiac function, vascular permeability, and mortality. So sFlt-1 has become a possible biomarker for sepsis with the ability to antagonize VEGF effect.

Blood environment in sepsis. Fig.4 The picture shows the blood environment in sepsis.

IVD Antibody Development Service Targeting sFlt-1 Marker

IVD antibodies are extensively used in immunodiagnostic tools for disease screening and therapeutic monitoring. Through our role as a leading antibody service provider, Creative Biolabs is well-positioned to develop high-quality sFlt-1-specific antibodies. Besides antibody generation, Creative Biolabs also offers diagnostic immunoassay development services, including feasibility analysis, assay design, assay protocol establishment, assay optimization, and kit production.

Creative Biolabs has successfully completed numerous IVD antibody generation and development projects for clients across the globe. If you are interested in our IVD antibody discovery services, please contact us for more details.

References

  1. Matsumoto T, et al. (2013). An elevated ratio of placental growth factor to soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 predicts adverse outcomes in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Internal Medicine. 52(10): 1019-1027.
  2. Powe C E, et al. (2011). Preeclampsia, a disease of the maternal endothelium: the role of antiangiogenic factors and implications for later cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 123(24): 2856-2869.
  3. Xu L, et al. (2012). Diabetic angiopathy and angiogenic defects. Fibrogenesis & tissue repair. 5(1): 13.


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