Introduction of CATSPERZ
Human CatSperζ is quadrilaterally arranged along the flagella, similar to the CatSper complex in mouse sperm. Targeted disruption of CatSperz reduces CatSper current and sperm rheotactic efficiency in mice, resulting in severe male subfertility. Normally distributed in linear quadrilateral nanodomains along the flagellum, the complex lacking CatSperζ is disrupted at ~0.8 μm intervals along the flagellum. This disruption renders the proximal flagellum inflexible and alters the 3D flagellar envelope, thus preventing sperm from reorienting against fluid flow in vitro and efficiently migrating in vivo.
|Basic Information of CATSPERZ|
|Protein Name||Cation channel sperm-associated protein subunit zeta|
|Aliases||CatSper-zeta, CatSperzeta, Testis-expressed protein 40|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Function of CATSPERZ Membrane Protein
Genetic disruption of mammalian-specific CatSperζ reduces the CatSper current in the sperm flagellum and hyperactivated motility, resulting in severe subfertility. Researchers use high speed video microscopy and digital image analysis to determine swimming trajectory and the flagellar waveform in detail. Surprisingly, abrogation of CatSperζ renders the proximal flagellum inflexible but preserves overall motility, thus resulting in restriction of the 3D flagellar envelope, inefficient sperm rheotaxis in vitro, and delayed sperm migration in vivo. Some reports also demonstrate that the structurally distinct CatSper Ca2+ signaling domains along the flagellum become fragmented in the absence of CatSperz.
Fig.1 Flagellar waveform traces. Movies recorded at 200 fps: CatSperz+/- (top) and CatSperz-/- (bottom) sperm cells attached on glass coverslips before capacitation (left), and 10 min (middle), and 90 min (right) after capacitation. Overlays of flagellar traces from two beat cycles are generated by hyperstacking binary images; time coded in color. (Chung, 2017)
Application of CATSPERZ Membrane Protein in Literature
This report speculates that the newly identified CatSperζ subunit is a late evolutionary adaptation to maximize fertilization inside the mammalian female reproductive tract.
CATSPERZ Preparation Options
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