Creative Biolabs is a trusted collaborator offering custom-tailed antibody development for basic research, pharmaceutical, and diagnostic applications. Especially, we introduce our in vitro diagnostic (IVD) antibody development services for KIM-1 marker.

Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1)

Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a type I cell membrane glycoprotein which belongs to the immunoglobulin. The extracellular portion is composed of a six-cysteine immunoglobulin-like domain, two N-glycosylation sites, and a Thr/Ser-Pro rich domain characteristic of mucin-like O-glycosylated proteins. The cytoplasmic domain of KIM-1 is relatively short and possesses a potential phosphorylation site. The ectodomain is cleaved by metalloproteinases. KIM-1 is also known as T cell immunoglobulin mucin domains-1 (TIM-1), as it is expressed at low levels by subpopulations of activated T cell; another KIM-1 homolog is an African green monkey protein cloned as hepatitis A virus cellular receptor-1 (HAVCR-1), expressed by hepatocytes.

Crystal Structure of Human T-cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin Domain Protein 1. Fig. 1 Crystal Structure of Human T-cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin Domain Protein 1

KIM-1 Marker of Acute Kidney Injury

KIM-1 is a biomarker for renal proximal tubular damage discovered only about 20 years ago. It is closely correlated with the severity of kidney injury, representing noninvasive sensitive surrogate biomarkers for diagnosing, monitoring, and quantifying kidney damage.

Under normal conditions, KIM-1 protein is hardly expressed in the kidney, but the expression of Kim-1 is significantly increased within a few hours after kidney injury. Through in situ hybridization and immune-histochemical analysis, it was found that Kim-1 is mainly expressed in dedifferentiated proximal tubular epithelial cells that were regenerated after injury, especially in the rich outer medullar region of the proximal segment S3.

Studies have been shown that extracellular fragments of KIM-1 protein are excreted into the urine as a result of the activation of MAP kinase after tubular cell injury. Early detection of AKI can be performed by detecting Kim-1 levels in urine. In the past 10 years, the preclinical and clinical trials have confirmed that the urinary Kim-1 level is a sensitive indicator for early diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of AKI. Compared with the most commonly used biological indicators (creatinine, BUN, etc.), Kim-1 has higher sensitivity and specificity, and its expression levels can reflect the actual degree of pathological damage of the kidney. At present, the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) has listed urine Kim-1 as one of the leading diagnostic markers of AKI. In addition, KIM-1 antibody can also be used for the diagnosis of various renal injury levels such as acute renal ischemic injury, nephrotoxicity, and acute and chronic renal transplant function.

Double fluorescent labeling with anti-Kim-1. Fig.2 Double fluorescent labeling with anti-Kim-1. (Stefan G., 2016)

IVD Antibody Development Service Targeting KIM-1 Marker

Creative Biolabs offers antibody development services to a wide range of diagnostic targets, including cytoplasmic, secreted, and membrane-bound proteins. Moreover, our services target a variety of disease areas, including but not limited to oncology, autoimmunity, and infectious diseases. Our expertise lies in not only antigen design and antibody generation but also antibody labeling and immunoassay development. Our team of clients will work closely with the clients and offer the best solutions that suit the specifications of the project. If you are interested in working together or have questions about our services, please contact us or send us an inquiry.

Reference

  1. Stefan G., (2016). “Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Is Specifically Expressed in Cystically-Transformed Proximal Tubules of the PKD/Mhm (cy/+) Rat Model of Polycystic Kidney Disease”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 17(16): 802.


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